shoulder

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shoulder

1. the part of the vertebrate body where the arm or a corresponding forelimb joins the trunk: the pectoral girdle and associated structures
2. the joint at the junction of the forelimb with the pectoral girdle
3. the strip of unpaved land that borders a road
4. Engineering a substantial projection or abrupt change in shape or diameter designed to withstand thrust
5. Photog the portion of the characteristic curve of a photographic material indicating the maximum density that can be produced on the material

Shoulder

A projection or break changing the thickness or width of a piece of shaped wood, metal, or stone.

Shoulder

 

of man, the segment of the upper extremity closest to the trunk.

The shoulder is bounded above by the shoulder joint and below by the elbow joint. The base of the shoulder is formed by the humeral bone, which has a body, an upper joint surface (caput, or head) to unite with the shoulder blade, and a lower joint surface (trochlea of the humerus) to unite with the bones of the forearm. The part of the bone under the head is called the neck of the shoulder. The shoulder bone is surrounded by longitudinally situated muscles—biceps and brachialis in front and triceps in back. The muscles are covered by a layer of connective tissue, subcutaneous fatty tissue, and skin. Deep in the soft tissues of the muscles are the blood vessels and nerves—the humeral artery and veins and the radial, ulnar, and median nerves. Superficial nerves, arteries, and veins are situated in the subcutaneous tissue.

Traumata of the shoulder include injuries to muscles, tendons, nerves, and blood vessels, as well as fractures—most commonly of the neck of the humerus.

shoulder

[′shōl·dər]
(anatomy)
The area of union between the upper limb and the trunk in humans.
The corresponding region in other vertebrates.
(design engineering)
The portion of a shaft, a stepped object, or a flanged object that shows an increase of diameter.
(engineering)
A projection made on a piece of shaped wood, metal, or stone, where its width or thickness is suddenly changed.
(geology)
A short, rounded spur protruding laterally from the slope of a mountain or hill.
The sloping segment below the summit of a mountain or hill.
A bench on the flanks of a glaciated valley, located at the sharp change of slope where the steep sides of the inner glaciated valley meet the more gradual slope above the level of glaciation.
A joint structure on a joint face produced by the intersection of plume-structure ridges with fringe joints.
(graphic arts)
That part of a plate or type that extends beyond the actual printing surface.

shoulder

1. A projection or break made on a piece of shaped wood, metal, or stone, where its width or thickness is suddenly changed. Also called ear, elbow.
2. The surface bordering a road, esp. where a vehicle can be parked in emergency.
3. The angle of a bastion included between the face and the flank of a fortification. Also called shoulder angle.

shoulder

shoulderclick for a larger image
An area adjacent to the edge of a pavement so prepared as to provide a transition between the pavement and the adjacent surface (ICAO).
References in periodicals archive ?
Samantha Donnelly's Shoulder to Shoulder is at the Ceri Hand Gallery in Cotton Street from tomorrow until July 23.
In the same formation as Bop, the group stands shoulder to shoulder in a circle, facing the center.
Its format is a simple geometry," says the Congregation of Holy Cross theologian Father Jeffrey Sobosan "It traces out a cross in the sequence of four points touched: head to chest, shoulder to shoulder.
I look forward to working shoulder to shoulder with Ernie as my partner in helping the Company realize its full potential," said J.
During the meeting, Interior Minister said that Pakistan stands shoulder to shoulder with Turkey in its war against terror and extremism.
ISLAMABAD -- Special Assistant to Prime Minister Syed Asif Kirmani has said the nation stands shoulder to shoulder with Prime Minister Muhammad Nawaz Sharif.
STANDING shoulder to shoulder this Sunday at St David's Hall, Cardiff, will be David Shannon, Chris Jacobsen, Simon Shorten, Osian Wyn Bowen, David Thaxton plus guests.
They stood shoulder to shoulder against a common enemy MIKE NESBITT
TimeBank has set up its Shoulder to Shoulder project in Birmingham and London to support them.
On the Americans' failure to co-operate with the coroner's court, Geraldine McCool, also for Sharon Hehir, added: "I believe American soldiers, who stand shoulder to shoulder with British soldiers in the field of combat, would be appalled to see that, because of the red tape further up the US chain of command, they do not stand shoulder to shoulder in death.
From his six-story box of glass, Aune stands shoulder to shoulder with six other controllers, squinting from capacious picture windows over two parallel runways.
And surely the united front of Prime Minister Tony Blair and President Bush of the United States, standing shoulder to shoulder to fight and destroy terrorism, will make the world a safer place for ALL children to grow up in.