He deduced that the withdrawal strength from side grain
of the wood may reasonably be predicted by the following expression:
"If a joint gives good side grain
glue area, its actual form might be less important."
if you prefer side grain
, cut your own plugs from scrap using a plug cutter,
The water-soaked samples and the end-matched controls were conditioned to 12 percent EMC and then measured at four locations along the side grain
using a test apparatus based on the back pressure percent of regulated pressure of 138 kPa as detailed in previous articles (Boutelje and Gagglund 1988, Wallace and Schmidt 2000).
An evaluation (Steam 1975) of withdrawal performance of 14-gauge Sencote staples from the side grain
of dry southern pine specimens (of 14.5% moisture content (MC) and 0.55 specific gravity) indicated that a linear relationship exists between staple leg penetration depth and withdrawal resistance of southern pine to staples.
This paper explores the machining quality of soft maple on end grain, flat side grain, and curved side grain.
The pattern employed is the same as in ASTM D 1666 for shaping, and allows the machining and evaluation of the end grain and side grain surfaces.
The three separate surfaces evaluated were end grain, flat side grain, and curved side grain, as indicated in Figure 1.
The Wood Handbook (6) suggests using the withdrawal equation for nails to predict the direct withdrawal load for one leg of a staple from wood side grain
. The nail equation also indicates a linear relationship between the withdrawal strength and the depth of staple penetration.
The permeable specimens had a far greater range for both absorption and pressure, but the percent weight gain was typically greater than 50 percent and the percent of regulated pressure for the side grain
averaged 38 percent with a range of 13 to 77 percent.