crystalline silicon

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crystalline silicon

Silicon that has an ordered atomic structure. It is used in almost all integrated circuits in the electronics industry. Fabricated from quartzite, a pure form of sand, the quartzite is treated (see below) to create polycrystalline silicon (polysilicon), a very pure silicon with multiple single-crystal regions of different sizes and orientations. The polysilicon is used to "grow" a single-crystal (monocrystalline) ingot that is sliced into wafers.

From Quartzite to Polysilicon
A common method of creating polysilicon is to mix quartzite with carbon materials in order to produce a very pure silicon that is then exposed to hydrogen chloride. This yields trichlorosilane, which is decomposed by an electric current in a chamber. The result is rods of polycrystalline silicon, which become the raw material for the crystal pulling process that creates the ingots. Contrast with amorphous silicon. See polysilicon.
References in periodicals archive ?
Tenders are invited for prefabricated construction to house a silicon crystal growth furnace at the autonomous university of madrid
However; unlike traditional silicon crystal solar cells that are relatively expensive to manufacture, a refined OPV technology should cost far less.
It consists of a silicon crystal sprinkled with phosphorus atoms.
The <<field effect transistor>> uses a semiconductor (for example, a germanium or silicon crystal) of only one type of conductivity, having a thin channel, which is affected by the electric field of the gate electrode isolated from the channel [16].
Feoktistov, "Synthesis of epitaxial silicon carbide films through the substitution of atoms in the silicon crystal lattice: A review," Physics of the Solid State, vol.
Now, in (http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/2058-9565/aa63a4) a study published in the latest edition of the journal Quantum Science and Technology, a team of researchers has demonstrated the storage and retrieval of quantum information&nbsp;in a single atom of phosphorus embedded in a silicon crystal. This "quantum memory" was created using the spin of the phosphorous nucleus, which behaved as long-lived qubit - a quantum computing equivalent of a bit.
In conjunction with a research project to determine the Avogadro constant, an ingot of hyperpure float- zone natural silicon crystal was produced by Wacker-Siltronic (Germany) in 1995.
The facility has been consolidated into a cost effective R/D, technology demonstration and training center for future licensees of the company's continuous Czochralski silicon crystal ingot manufacturing technology.
The more expensive monocrystalline silicon solar cells have higher solar efficiencies that approach 25% (without concentrators), and are cut (diced) from a large silicon crystal. The less expensive (and more commonly used) polycrystalline silicon solar cells have efficiencies approaching 21% in the lab, and 17 to 18% in the field.
Cells such as the L-BSF are being actively developed by improving the back electrodes of silicon crystal PVs.
Seider, and T Sinno, "A lattice kinetic Monte Carlo study of void morphological evolution during silicon crystal growth," Molecular Simulation, vol.
Where the traditional KOH etch approaches suffered from limitations in etch control, and created a 'V' shape etch (creating lateral sloped walls determined by the silicon crystal orientation), the Bosch Process allowed deep etches with near perfect control over the sidewall profile.