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see carbohydratecarbohydrate,
any member of a large class of chemical compounds that includes sugars, starches, cellulose, and related compounds. These compounds are produced naturally by green plants from carbon dioxide and water (see photosynthesis).
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A class of simple sugars containing a chain of 3–10 carbon atoms in the molecule, known as polyhydroxy aldehydes (aldoses) or ketones (ketoses). They are very soluble in water, sparingly soluble in ethanol, and insoluble in ether. The number of monosaccharides known is approximately 70, of which about 20 occur in nature. The remainder are synthetic. The existence of such a large number of compounds is due to the presence of asymmetric carbon atoms in the molecules. Aldohexoses, for example, which include the important sugar glucose, contain no less than four asymmetric atoms, each of which may be present in either d or l configuration. The number of stereoisomers rapidly increases with each additional asymmetric carbon atom.

A list of the best-known monosaccharides is given below:

Aldose monosaccharides having 8, 9, and 10 carbon atoms in their chains have been synthesized. See Carbohydrate


A carbohydrate which cannot be hydrolyzed to a simpler carbohydrate; a polyhedric alcohol having reducing properties associated with an actual or potential aldehyde or ketone group; classified on the basis of the number of carbon atoms, as triose (3C), tetrose (4C), pentose (5C), and so on.


a simple sugar, such as glucose or fructose, that does not hydrolyse to yield other sugars
References in periodicals archive ?
They can't be digested until broken down into simple sugars, which are then absorbed in the intestines.
The prominent decrease in degree of polymerization of fructan closely paralleled the increase in simple sugar levels following the occurrence of below freezing temperatures near -3 [degrees] C at crown level during both winters and resulted in the onset of the second-phase of cold hardening described by Olien and Clark (1995) and Livingston and Henson (1998).
A SIMPLE sugar pill could prove the salvation of people who want to quit smoking.
Most of the food we eat is broken down by the digestive juices into a simple sugar called glucose.
And if work at Calgene is successful, a simple sugar with important properties is going to get a lot less expensive.
A simple sugar icing cements the houses together and holds decorations in place.
The aptly named Comet Lovejoy contains ethanol and the simple sugar glycolaldehyde, researchers report October 23 in Science Advances.
Why don't you try some simple sugar swaps during the day: The Breakfast Swap: sugary cereal for plain |cereal e.g.
Xylanase Helps break down hemicellulose into xylose, a simple sugar that helps feed intestinal bacteria.
Researchers at Emory University School of Medicine found that under certain conditions (a simple sugar diet) acai supplementation could triple flies' lifespans, from eight to 24 days.
Researchers believe it all has to do with glucose, a simple sugar found in the bloodstream that provides energy for the brain.
Carbohydrate or simple sugar is what fuels all plant and animal growth.