We first showed that these would be determined by single scattering
events--as opposed to multiple scattering which is smoother.
Fourth, the OCT signal in the single scattering
approximation is described for a turbid medium.
The aerosol volume size distributions (VSD), single scattering
albedo (SSA), refractive index(RI), and asymmetry parameter(ASY) values during dusty days suggested that dust aerosols are dominant over the anthropogenic aerosol in the Lahore, Pakistan.
Following this procedure for all the objects present, a recursion relation is obtained for higher order scattered fields in terms of the scattered field of the single, component object, and thus successively higher order corrections are made to the single scattering
solution for the configuration.
The output data consists in approximations of particle volume size distributions which are used to compute particle effective radius ([R.sub.eff]), surface area (S), and volume concentrations (V) as well as the complex refractive index (CRI) and single scattering
Max  introduced a single scattering
model for light diffusion to generate haze in the atmosphere.
From second-order perturbation theory [34,95,135], assuming that the isotopes are distributed randomly, the single scattering
rate by the isotopes [82,136] is given by
The computational difference with respect to single scattering
approximation is that the total scattered intensity is calculated by taking the square module of the total scattered field instead of directly summing the scattered field intensities by each particle.
If the targets satisfy the single scattering
model, the bi-static far-field system can be approximately evaluated by the monostatic near-field system.
Based on this framework, formulas to calculate scattering matrices for the individual layers are derived along with the procedures to combine multiple scattering matrices into a single scattering