In addition, low-band LTE Relay allows for the single-hop transmission
distance of up to 40 km, and therefore can be used as a substitute for microwave transmission and costly traditional satellite narrowband transmission.
In wireless sensor networks (WSNs), nodes are deployed in monitored areas, physical data collected by the source node (SN) that needs to be transmitted to the destination node (DN) via single-hop transmission
or multi-hop transmission.
Each variable corresponds with the SNR, in which single-hop transmission
is carried out over the distinct channel to optimize energy efficiency.
"A Generic Model for Optimizing Single-Hop Transmission
Policy of Replenish able Sensors" in this method they had examined about the energy efficient renewable sensor networks.
The reward [r.sup.i.sub.t+i]([s.sup.i.sub.t+i]) represents the difference between two types of delays, namely, the maximum allowable single-hop transmission
delay and a successful single-hop transmission
In the case of single-hop transmission
, the distance between the SN and the sink node is proportional to the energy consumption of SN.
It has been proven that short distance multi-hop transmission can save much more energy than long distance single-hop transmission
. Single-hop cluster is perfect in a small scale network, however, in a large scale network, multi-hop cluster is much energy efficient for the significant reduced communication cost.
Cooperative communication is introduced based on switching beamforming, converting the original single-hop transmission
to two-hop transmission.
Protocol MCR uses both single-hop transmission
and multihop transmission in the network.
However, single-hop transmission
consumes more energy than multi-hop communications.
R is the single-hop transmission
distance from the origin TX to its associated RX, and [PHI] is the angle with which each packet traversed at each hop to the destination (see Fig.