Comparison of Skewness
before and after transformation
(2) The skewness
values in this research support the use of parametric statistics and procedures (George & Mallery, 2016; Gravetter & Wallnau, 2013).
EISKEW is expected idiosyncratic skewness
, defined in Boyer et al.
First, we find that these episodes are associated with substantial increases in the volatility and negative skewness
of growth rates of output, consumption, and investment.
Furthermore, the MA timing quintiles display a similar scale but all positive skewness
across the volatility quintile.
To categorize Likert-type scales, as stated by Bollen and Barb (1981), the continuum was divided into equal intervals from z = -3 to z = 3 in order to calculate the thresholds of the condition in which the response distribution to all items is symmetrical (skewness
The latter one, more adherent to the research proposal, states that when bonding to more developed markets via the ADRs issuance, the companies signal the investors greater growth perspectives, more sobriety and commitment, reducing the information skewness
and agency problems.
showing that, in the small, [P.sub.u] measures the trade-off between the difference in the second moments and the difference in skewness
of the random incomes, with greater negative skewness
requiring a lower variance to maintain expected utility given [P.sub.u] > 0.
Mean Variance Std Skewness
Kurtosis UL1_Off 80.3636 292.8545 17.1130 -0.2417 2.0475 UL1_On 79 316.8889 17.8014 0.1228 2.3727 TABLE II.
Portfolio selection with skewness
in emerging market industries.
The same similarity occurs in terms of skewness
, but the kurtosis shows some differences.