Drag torque remains small and becomes insensitive to slip speed
. In regime (IV), when the rotating speed is very high, the clutch plates start fluttering, resulting in increased friction due to mechanical contact between plates.
In order to compute tire forces and moments, Korunovic et al  developed FEM model to study the variation of rubber friction with slip speed
and contact pressure without considering temperature.
Vasca, "Dry dual clutch torque model with temperature and slip speed
effects," Intelligent Industrial Systems, vol.
The effective back-EMF is proportional to the slip speed
[OMEGA] that is the speed difference between outer and inner rotors, which can be expressed as
AC induction motors rotate at a nearly constant speed slightly deviated from their synchronous speed by a slip speed
. The amount of motor slip increases roughly proportional to the motor load, while the synchronous speed is determined by the frequency of power supply and the number of electrical magnetic poles (Hughes 2006).
Each gear ratio Z has its associated ratio [Z.sub.sync] in order for the eddy current clutch to operate in its optimum slip speed
and maximize its torque production.
The wear volume increases almost linearly as a function of the slip speed
to reach the maximum 34.6 and 35.3 x [10.sup.7] [micro][m.sup.3] for AISI 316L and Ti-6Al-7Nb under the load of 10 N, respectively, at a rate 15 mm [s.sup.-1].
1) , The slip speed
is a function of wall shear stress and melt temperature, where a master curve of slip speed
versus shear stress can be developed using Arrhenius shift factors.
First, the friction value at slip speed
S is adjusted to 60 km/h using Eqn (3):
A possible explanation of the decreasing of slip force-slip function for large longitudinal slip is the decrease of friction coefficient with increasing slip speed
due to the increasing temperature in the rail/wheel contact area (Hou, Kalousek 2000; Ertz, Knothe 2002; Ertz, Bucher 2003).
Addition of slip speed
with the actual speed generates the speed of the stator flux vector.
independent of slip speed
can be used in any spring