formation on the membrane surface is viewed as the major cause of membrane fouling .
(2007) found concentrations of up to 114 Giardia cysts and 110 Cryptosporidium oocysts in sludge cake
from activated sludge system.
It can easily detach and loosen the sludge cake
from the surface of membrane that was believed to be removed by air bubbles or cross flow.
The biosolids are further treated by centrifuge to extract the residual water, then collected and stored in a designated waste collection skip as 'sludge cake
' which is transported out of Al Taweelah Operations for recycling at an off-site Abu Dhabi Municipality compost plant.
Watanabe  has demonstrated that a amphoteric system gave a two times higher dewatering rate, producing a dewatered sludge cake
having a moisture content 2-5% lower than the conventional methods.
The study, performed by scientists at the Universiti Teknologi MARA in Malaysia, demonstrates a process by which wet sludge cake
is dried, burnt, ground and sieved to create domestic waste sludge powder (DWSP).
The team dried and burnt wet sludge cake
to remove moisture, and then ground and sieved the dried sludge cake
to make DWSP.
Saxlund said in total it has now won five contracts from Anglian Water since it developed and delivered the first system for storage of sewage sludge cake
at Anglian Water's Thetford satellite water treatment works in 2012.
The Mono progressing cavity (PC) Cake Pump has been installed to transfer 22 - 28% sludge cake
from the site's centrifuge dewatering process to a storage skip for later removal from site.
Sludge conditioning by polyelectrolytes is often carried out through one or more processes such as adsorption of the bonding water in sludge particles, neutralizing electric charges of the particles and accumulating fine particles by creating bridges among them and the end-result would be the formation of a sludge cake
capable of releasing water [6, 8].
The digested sludge cake
left behind after the process, a safe and low odour product, could in turn be used as an agricultural fertiliser.