small intestine

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small intestine:

see intestineintestine,
muscular hoselike portion of the gastrointestinal tract extending from the lower end of the stomach (pylorus) to the anal opening. In humans this fairly narrow (about 1 in./2.
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The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Intestine, Small

 

the portion of the gut of vertebrate mammals, including man, that is situated between the stomach and the large intestine. The final digestion of food, the absorption of nutrients, and the movement of chyme occur in the small intestine.

In mammals, including man, the small intestine is divided into three sections: the duodenum, the jejunum, and the ileum. The length of the small intestine differs according to the nature of the digestive process: in man it is 6–7 m long, in cattle 27–49 m, in dogs 1.8–4.8 m, in cats 0.8–1.3 m, and in swine 16–21 m. In man the diameter of the small intestine is 48 mm in the initial section and 27 mm at the place where the ileum empties into the large intestine.

The walls of all sections of the small intestine are composed of mucous, submucous, and serous membranes and a muscular coat. Each section varies in the microscopic and submicroscopic characteristics of the intestinal wall, which reflect differences in function. The surface area of the small intestine’s mucous membrane is greatly increased by folds and protuberances: examples are the spiral valve in the mucous membrane of some fishes, and the villi, folds, and crypts in the small intestine of birds, mammals, and man.

Food is digested both in the intestinal cavity itself and by means of membrane-mediated (parietal) digestion. Cavitary digestion is achieved by the flow of pancreatic juice, bile, and intestinal juice into the lumen of the small intestine. During this process, supramolecular aggregates and the large molecules of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats in the food mass are hydrolyzed by the proteolytic, amylolytic, and lipolytic enzymes in the small intestine. The products of intermediate hydrolysis are adsorbed on the surface of the mucous membrane of the small intestine, where the final stages of hydrolysis and transition to absorption take place.

Parietal digestion is achieved by means of enzymes that are structurally bound to the cell membranes of the intestinal epithelium. The digestion and absorption of food in the small intestine are accompanied by contractions of the intestinal walls that mix and stir the chyme and propel it through the intestine.

IA. L. KARAGANOV

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

small intestine

[′smȯl in′tes·tən]
(anatomy)
The anterior portion of the intestine in humans and other mammals; it is divided into three parts, the duodenum, the jejunum, and the ileum.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

small intestine

the longest part of the alimentary canal, consisting of the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum, in which digestion is completed
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
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The incarcerated small bowel was reduced pre-operatively, however, persistence of bladder incarceration was the indication for operative repair.
ACG Clinical Guideline: Diagnosis and Management of Small Bowel Bleeding.
Bologna guidelines for diagnosis and management of adhesive small bowel obstruction (ASBO): 2013 update of the evidence-based guidelines from the world society of emergency surgery ASBO working group.
Adenocarcinoma of the small bowel: presentation, prognostic factors, and outcome of 217 patients.
Correlation of magnetic resonance enteroclysis (MRE) and wireless capsule endoscopy (CE) in the diagnosis of small bowel lesions in Crohn's disease.
However, biopsy is not possible using this approach, the precise lesion location cannot be determined, and endoscopic therapy is not possible, which limit its use.[7] Double-balloon enteroscopy partly overcomes the deficiencies of capsule endoscopy, enabling examination of the entire small bowel while making biopsy and therapy possible.[8] The diagnostic rate of double-balloon enteroscopy for small-bowel disease ranges from 82.4% to 86.8%.[9] The importance of double-balloon enteroscopy lies in differential diagnostics of lesions identified using capsule endoscopy with possible biopsy sampling and in the therapeutic potential of this method in patients with complications (stenosis dilation, extracting retained capsule endoscopy, and controlling bleeding).
In addition, in four patients (21%), there were images of masses that appeared to originate from the small bowel, and seven patients had bezoars (36.8%)
The common location of mesenteric defects is in the region of small bowel (70% of cases) with 53% of these being in the ileocaecal region of mesentery.
Lewis, "Development of a capsule endoscopy scoring index for small bowel mucosal inflammatory change," Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, vol.
Sonography has the potential to determine the cause of small bowel ileus through specific findings [17].
Two patients with SSBO died of entire small bowel necrosis.