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in metallurgy, any process of melting or fusion, especially to extract a metal from its ore. Smelting processes vary in detail depending on the nature of the ore and the metal involved, but they are typified in the use of the blast furnaceblast furnace,
structure used chiefly in smelting. The principle involved in this means of extracting metals is that of the reduction of the ores by the action of carbon monoxide, i.e., the removal of oxygen from the metal oxide in order to obtain the metal.
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The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



the process of converting ores, usually metal ores, in smelting furnaces to produce a final product in molten form. Blast-furnace smelting is used in metallurgy for extracting metals from ores. Solid or molten metallic charges are converted by smelting in open-hearth furnaces, electric furnaces, and oxygen-Bessemer furnaces. Ferrous alloys and nonferrous metals are refined by smelting. Other applications of smelting are the production of alloys and the fusion of solid metals for pouring into cast ingots or for making intricate castings. A single cycle of the smelting process, as well as the resulting product is sometimes referred to as a smelt.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


The heating of ore mixtures accompanied by a chemical change resulting in liquid metal.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
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