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smog

(smŏg) [smoke+fog], dense, visible air pollutionair pollution,
contamination of the air by noxious gases and minute particles of solid and liquid matter (particulates) in concentrations that endanger health. The major sources of air pollution are transportation engines, power and heat generation, industrial processes, and the
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. Smog is commonly of two types. The gray smog of older industrial cities like London and New York derives from the massive combustion of coal and fuel oil in or near the city, releasing tons of ashes, soot, and sulfur compounds into the air. The brown smog characteristic of Los Angeles and Denver in the late 20th cent. is caused by automobiles. Nitric oxide from automobile exhaust combines with oxygen in the air to form the brown gas nitrogen dioxide. Also, when hydrocarbons and nitrous oxides from auto emissions are exposed to sunlight, a photochemical reaction takes place that results in the formation of ozone and other irritating compounds. In some instances, atmospheric pollutants accumulate and become concentrated when air movement is stopped by a temperature inversiontemperature inversion,
condition in which the temperature of the atmosphere increases with altitude in contrast to the normal decrease with altitude. When temperature inversion occurs, cold air underlies warmer air at higher altitudes.
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: Usually the air is warmer at the earth's surface and colder above; in a temperature inversion a layer of warm air forms above and holds down a layer of cool air at the ground. Smog usually results in reduced visibility, irritation of the eyes and respiratory system, and damage to paint, metal, rubber, and other materials. Prolonged smogs (generally caused by temperature inversions) are often lethal to persons with respiratory ailments. As the result of an unremitting smog in 1948 in Donora, Pa., more than 5,000 persons were reported ill and the deaths of 20 persons were recorded. In London, smog accounted for the deaths of more than 4,000 persons in 1952 and 106 persons in 1962.
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Smog

 

the severe air pollution over large cities and industrial centers. There are two types of smog. One is a thick fog that contains smoke or gaseous industrial wastes as, for example, in London; the other is a pall of corrosive gases and aerosols in high concentrations (without fog). The latter type arises under the effect of ultraviolet solar radiation in the atmosphere as a result of photochemical reactions occurring in the exhausts of motor vehicles and the gaseous wastes of chemical plants as, for example, in Los Angeles. Smog is usually observed when there is low atmospheric turbulence and, consequently, an even distribution of air temperature with height, especially in temperature inversions during a calm or a slight wind.

Smog, which reduces visibility and accelerates the corrosion of metals and man-made structures, is also harmful to human health. Intense and prolonged smog can be a cause of increased morbidity and mortality.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

smog

[smäg]
(meteorology)
Air pollution consisting of smoke and fog.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

smog

A condition in which the surface visibility is reduced because of smoke particles suspended in the moist air.
An Illustrated Dictionary of Aviation Copyright © 2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

smog

a mixture of smoke, fog, and chemical fumes
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
THIEVES ransacked Benet Street star Smoggy's house - because they thought he was rolling in cash.
Smoggy shone on the Channel 4 hit show about life on James Turner Street as he went door-to-door selling household goods for 50p.
'"I've not had any replies yet and don't really expect to - but never say never." SMOGGY,AKA 50P MAN
In a clip from the first episode, Smoggy is seen taking his goods to a James Turner Street resident, below
A Facebook page, called 50p Man Smoggy, was 'liked' by 1,700 people, many of whom posted glowing comments.
They give the commercial hip-hop sounds a wide berth and instead plough their own furrow - or furrows, because Leddie's alliteration is quite different to Smoggy's machine gun etiquette rap.
POWERFUL: Socially conscious Middlesbrough hip-hop duo Leddie and Smoggy perform at the launch party CONFIDENCE: Above, from left, Lauren Bishop, Michaela Parkes and Laura Neasham examine the Kenaz magazine.
NEWS of the 18 month closure of the Forum emerged on gazettelive's forums and has sparked hot debate: Smoggy wrote: "It has the potential to be inconvenient for swimmers, gymnasts, squash players, but it's devastating for anyone working to competitions, championships on the ice side."
Syed Kalim Imam to provide information to the road users and general public during foggy, smoggy season.
WHETHER you are a diehard magpie or a proud smoggy, King Kev's return as manager of Boro's big rival could be good news for the Teesside property market if Wynyard's famous former resident comes back to his old stamping ground.
He had a chance to chat to Tim Lovejoy and Helen Chamberlain, who became an honorary Smoggy.
The distinctive little enamel badges bearing slogans like "I Love Teesside Me" and "Proud To Be A Smoggy" became a familiar matchday accessory and tapped into the ironic humour of the Boro crowd.