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a rifleman who is skilled in marksmanship, camouflage, and observation; the term “sniper” first appeared in the British Army during World War I. In the Soviet Armed Forces, sniper training was greatly expanded during the Great Patriotic War of 1941-45. Snipers had the task of eliminating enemy snipers, officers, observers, couriers, artillery and machine-gun crews, low-flying aircraft, and other targets. They were armed with rifles equipped with telescopic sights, which increased aiming accuracy and made it possible to fire effectively at distances up to 800 m. Snipers usually worked in pairs: one man fired, and the other acted as an observer. Since the war, sniper training has been conducted in the armed forces of many countries. The term “sniper” is sometimes applied to marksmen in other types of units, such as artillery, armored, or aviation units.