socialization


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socialization

[‚sō·shə·lə′zā·shən]
(psychology)
The process whereby a child learns to get along with and to behave similarly to other people in the group, largely through imitation as well as group pressure.

socialization

  1. (also called ENCULTURATION) the process in which the CULTURE of a society is transmitted to children; the modification from infancy of an individual's behaviour to conform with the demands of social life (see ACCULTURATION). In this sense, socialization is a FUNCTIONAL PREREQUISITE for any society, essential to any social life, as well as to the cultural and SOCIAL REPRODUCTION of both general and particular social forms. As emphasized by PARSONS and Bales (1955), socialization, undertaken in the FAMILY and elsewhere, involves both integration into society (ROLES, INSTITUTIONS, etc.) and the differentiation of one individual from another.
  2. the replacement of private ownership of the means of production by PUBLIC OWNERSHIP.
  3. (MARXISM) the tendency of capitalist production increasingly to depend on collective organization (e.g. the interrelation of many different processes). This is one important reason why MARX expected a transition to SOCIALISM (and common ownership of the means of production) ultimately to occur.
Of the three conceptions, 1 is the most important sociological and anthropological usage.

Because it is concerned with relationships between the individual and society, it is clear that socialization in this sense is a concept that bridges the disciplines of sociology and PSYCHOLOGY. Theories of socialization have concentrated on:

  1. cognitive development (e.g. PIAGET);
  2. acquisition of moral and personal identity through family relationships (e.g. FREUD);
  3. the acquisition of the SELF concept and social identity (e.g.G. H. MEAD);
  4. internalization of the moral categories and values of the group (e.g. DURKHEIM);
  5. the development of social skills which sustain interaction in all settings, chief of which is linguistic communication, through which the social and physical environment are appropriated and interpreted (e.g. BERNSTEIN).

A distinction is also sometimes drawn between two forms of socialization:

  1. the process involved in becoming an adult social being, with the focus largely on childhood - primary socialization; and
  2. the more general processes through which culture is transmitted (e.g. adult peers, media of communication, etc.) – secondary socialization.

According to D. Wrong (1961), it is useful to distinguish between these two forms of socialization 1 , but it is essential that the active, purposeful and reflexive dimensions of socialization, of relations between self and others, should be acknowledged for both forms of socialization (see OVERSOCIALIZED CONCEPTION OF MAN). See also NATURE–NURTURE DEBATE, DEVELOPMENT, LOOKING-GLASS SELF.

Socialization

 

the process by which an individual acquires specific knowledge and values and accepts standards that enable him to function as a full and equal member of society. Socialization includes the socially imposed processes of the purposeful shaping of personality (upbringing) as well as the inherent and spontaneous processes that affect the formation of personality.

There is a wide range of theories on socialization. Some investigators consider man to be a biological entity whose innate forms of behavior and instincts become adapted to social conditions (Freudianism), whereas others view personality as a passive product of social influences. According to the Marxist concept, socialization must be studied phylogenetically and ontogenetically. In the former the development of the generic properties of mankind are studied, and in the latter the development of a specific type of personality. Socialization is not merely the sum of the external influences that regulate the manifestation of an individual’s immanent biopsychological impulses and drives but also the process of the formation of an integrated personality. Individuality is not the precondition but the result of socialization. The substance, stages, and specific mechanisms of socialization are historical in nature; they differ greatly from one society to another and are determined by a society’s socioeconomic structure.

Socialization is not just the direct interaction of individuals but is also the total aggregate of social relationships, including those that are the most deep-seated and indirect. It is not a mechanical imposition of a ready social form on an individual. While the individual is the object of socialization, he is also the subject of social action and the initiator and creator of new social forms. The success of socialization therefore depends on the extent to which an individual is involved in the creative social action that transforms society through the elimination of obsolete norms, morals, and customs.

The different aspects of socialization are studied by psychology (the mechanisms of behavior and the learning process at different stages of the life cycle), social psychology (the socializing function of immediate surroundings and interpersonal relationships), sociology (the interrelationship between socialization processes and institutions in a macrosystem), history and ethnography (comparative historical studies of socialization in different societies and cultures), and pedagogy (upbringing).

REFERENCES

Vygotskii, L. S. Razvitie vysshikh psikhicheskikh funktsii. Moscow, 1960.
Kon, I. S. Sotsiologiia lichnosti. Moscow, 1967.
Bueva, L. P. Sotsial’naia sreda i soznanie lichnosti. Moscow, 1968.
Leont’ev, A. N. Problemy razvitiiapsikhiki, 3rd ed. Moscow, 1972.
Handbook of Socialization Theory and Research. Edited by D. A. Goslin. Chicago, 1969.

I. S. KON

References in periodicals archive ?
Socialization allows professionals from the same activity to share skills and gain recognition from others who perform the same function (Dubar, 2012).
Through the process of socialization, people develop their identity and insert themselves into society, so it is understood that socialization makes the individual an active being in the social process, making him or her belong to the objective world and incorporating into that the subjectivity of this world (Martin-Baro, 1992).
A number of previous researches have proven that socialization has become an important factor that influences the success of a policy.
A research by Islam, Jasimuddin, & Hasan (2017) who observed the effect of structure and the climate of the organization towards the conversion of knowledge found that the socialization became a significant mediating variable within the model.
The studies conducted in the late 1990s shifted their emphasis and discussed the prominent and significant role of principals and Head teachers along with administrators and educational authorities of the organizations in developing professional identity and institutional socialization of teachers (e.g., Fedricks, 2001; Johnson and Birkeland, 2003).
The studies in the area of teacher socialization have revealed that beginning teachers rely more on their senior colleagues and Head teachers for academic guidance and prefer to follow the institutional practices as advised to them (e.g., Southwell, I970).
In its position statement on puppy socialization, the American Veterinary Society of Animal Behavior (AVSAB) says, "Enrolling in puppy classes prior to three months of age can be an excellent means of improving training, strengthening the human-animal bond, and socializing puppies in an environment where the risk of illness can be minimized." AVSAB recommends that puppies have at least one set of vaccines at least seven days prior to the first class, and a first deworming, noting that while puppies' immune systems are still developing, "the combination of maternal immunity, primary vaccination, and appropriate care makes the risk of infection relatively small compared to the chance of death from a behavior problem."
Socialization outcomes can differ between types of jobs, organizations and cultures (Bauer et al., 1998).
The study also mirrored a recent non-blinded, open-label Duke University trial that showed similar Vineland Socialization score improvements.
More importantly, O'Neal and Magai (2005) showed that the adaptive quality of each socialization strategy depends on the emotion (e.g., sadness vs.
More recent developmental theories describe socialization of children as a multidirectional process, where children themselves play an active role, and parents are the primary socialization agents, but not the only ones (Grusec et al.
In this time-lagged study, we contributed to the literature by increasing understanding of newcomer adjustment after the new employees had experienced organizational socialization tactics, with voice behavior as the desired outcome.

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