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socialization

[‚sō·shə·lə′zā·shən]
(psychology)
The process whereby a child learns to get along with and to behave similarly to other people in the group, largely through imitation as well as group pressure.

socialization

  1. (also called ENCULTURATION) the process in which the CULTURE of a society is transmitted to children; the modification from infancy of an individual's behaviour to conform with the demands of social life (see ACCULTURATION). In this sense, socialization is a FUNCTIONAL PREREQUISITE for any society, essential to any social life, as well as to the cultural and SOCIAL REPRODUCTION of both general and particular social forms. As emphasized by PARSONS and Bales (1955), socialization, undertaken in the FAMILY and elsewhere, involves both integration into society (ROLES, INSTITUTIONS, etc.) and the differentiation of one individual from another.
  2. the replacement of private ownership of the means of production by PUBLIC OWNERSHIP.
  3. (MARXISM) the tendency of capitalist production increasingly to depend on collective organization (e.g. the interrelation of many different processes). This is one important reason why MARX expected a transition to SOCIALISM (and common ownership of the means of production) ultimately to occur.
Of the three conceptions, 1 is the most important sociological and anthropological usage.

Because it is concerned with relationships between the individual and society, it is clear that socialization in this sense is a concept that bridges the disciplines of sociology and PSYCHOLOGY. Theories of socialization have concentrated on:

  1. cognitive development (e.g. PIAGET);
  2. acquisition of moral and personal identity through family relationships (e.g. FREUD);
  3. the acquisition of the SELF concept and social identity (e.g.G. H. MEAD);
  4. internalization of the moral categories and values of the group (e.g. DURKHEIM);
  5. the development of social skills which sustain interaction in all settings, chief of which is linguistic communication, through which the social and physical environment are appropriated and interpreted (e.g. BERNSTEIN).

A distinction is also sometimes drawn between two forms of socialization:

  1. the process involved in becoming an adult social being, with the focus largely on childhood - primary socialization; and
  2. the more general processes through which culture is transmitted (e.g. adult peers, media of communication, etc.) – secondary socialization.

According to D. Wrong (1961), it is useful to distinguish between these two forms of socialization 1 , but it is essential that the active, purposeful and reflexive dimensions of socialization, of relations between self and others, should be acknowledged for both forms of socialization (see OVERSOCIALIZED CONCEPTION OF MAN). See also NATURE–NURTURE DEBATE, DEVELOPMENT, LOOKING-GLASS SELF.

Socialization

 

the process by which an individual acquires specific knowledge and values and accepts standards that enable him to function as a full and equal member of society. Socialization includes the socially imposed processes of the purposeful shaping of personality (upbringing) as well as the inherent and spontaneous processes that affect the formation of personality.

There is a wide range of theories on socialization. Some investigators consider man to be a biological entity whose innate forms of behavior and instincts become adapted to social conditions (Freudianism), whereas others view personality as a passive product of social influences. According to the Marxist concept, socialization must be studied phylogenetically and ontogenetically. In the former the development of the generic properties of mankind are studied, and in the latter the development of a specific type of personality. Socialization is not merely the sum of the external influences that regulate the manifestation of an individual’s immanent biopsychological impulses and drives but also the process of the formation of an integrated personality. Individuality is not the precondition but the result of socialization. The substance, stages, and specific mechanisms of socialization are historical in nature; they differ greatly from one society to another and are determined by a society’s socioeconomic structure.

Socialization is not just the direct interaction of individuals but is also the total aggregate of social relationships, including those that are the most deep-seated and indirect. It is not a mechanical imposition of a ready social form on an individual. While the individual is the object of socialization, he is also the subject of social action and the initiator and creator of new social forms. The success of socialization therefore depends on the extent to which an individual is involved in the creative social action that transforms society through the elimination of obsolete norms, morals, and customs.

The different aspects of socialization are studied by psychology (the mechanisms of behavior and the learning process at different stages of the life cycle), social psychology (the socializing function of immediate surroundings and interpersonal relationships), sociology (the interrelationship between socialization processes and institutions in a macrosystem), history and ethnography (comparative historical studies of socialization in different societies and cultures), and pedagogy (upbringing).

REFERENCES

Vygotskii, L. S. Razvitie vysshikh psikhicheskikh funktsii. Moscow, 1960.
Kon, I. S. Sotsiologiia lichnosti. Moscow, 1967.
Bueva, L. P. Sotsial’naia sreda i soznanie lichnosti. Moscow, 1968.
Leont’ev, A. N. Problemy razvitiiapsikhiki, 3rd ed. Moscow, 1972.
Handbook of Socialization Theory and Research. Edited by D. A. Goslin. Chicago, 1969.

I. S. KON

References in periodicals archive ?
Experiment 1: Effects of socializing piglets prior to weaning on the behavior and performance of piglets and sows
Popov and Bernhardt conclude from their analysis that under certain conditions, fraternity or sorority membership does have an effect on labor market outcomes--even when they "assume away" any correlation between productivity and socializing skills in order to focus on the decision-making and filtering process among students, fraternities, and employers.
This shows optimal score limit in an environment, because half of the available rooms can be benefit by the residents a places for socializing.
The reason Harter gets such questions is because socializing is a vital part of wellbeing, and wellbeing is a vital part of living and working.
Furthermore, it has been noticed that those adept at socializing are also good at their work since it encourages innovation and creativity.
Participation in SNWs consists of "joining as a member and interacting with other network members by sharing audio-visual, contributing to forum discussions, exchanging views and ideas within communities of common interest, sharing sources of information, collaborating towards a common goal, and last but not least, searching for and socializing with similar interests"(Cachia, et al.
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All of this sounds a bit strange if you still think of journalists as the hard-boiled types who do most of their socializing in bars.
We--and more importantly executives looking for answers--need a channel to exchange our opinions and experiences, which drove our informal group to develop the idea of Socializing Media as a podcast and discussion forum.
They become friends as the volunteer provides leash training and teaches the dog the basics, including house training and socializing with people and other dogs.
Specifically, maternal Neuroticism, Anxiety, and Trait Depression were related to negative strategies of socializing sadness, while maternal Agreeableness was correlated with positive socialization strategies.
The preponderance of the evidence is that workers' use of leisure changed very little in the decade after the revolution, and that they used the great bulk of their leisure time socializing with each other, the traditional Russian leisure practice.

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