sociology of education

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sociology of education

the application of sociological theories, perspectives and research methods to an analysis of educational processes and practices. It is characteristic of industrial societies that, compared with previous societies, education is provided by specialized institutions. It is the performance of these institutions that is the central object of study in the sociology of education.

Although the emergence of the sociology of education as a distinct field of enquiry is of fairly recent origin, it has its roots in the early development of sociology, especially the FUNCTIONALISM of DURKHEIM. For Durkheim (1922), the process of education was to be understood in terms of its contribution to the promotion and maintenance of the social order. A related viewpoint (e.g. MANNHEIM) was to regard education as a means of solving problems and removing social antagonisms.

Until the 1950s, the sociology of education remained strongly influenced by such perspectives, although the development of the discipline owed much to the role of sociology in teacher training, especially in the US, as well as to the tradition of’political arithmetic’ in the UK. The latter tradition led to a range of surveys and statistical studies exploring the social influences on educational attainment, and educational and occupational selection and SOCIAL MOBILITY (e.g. Floud, HALSEY and Martin, 1957). Although these studies revealed the persistence of class and gender inequalities in educational opportunity, the assumption remained that education could become a means of social transformation in the long run. In the UK, the introduction of COMPREHENSIVE SCHOOLS, programmes of COMPENSATORY EDUCATION and the expansion of HIGHER EDUCATION in the 1950s and subsequently, were intended to achieve this end, creating not only a more equal society, but also eliminating unnecessary waste of the nation's human talent.

During the 1960s, a breakdown of the functionalist hegemony in sociology and an increasing pessimism about reformist policies in education, especially in the US, led to the emergence of a sociology of education markedly different in tenor. Sources of inequality lying outside the school were seen as intractable and fundamental questions were raised about both the traditional sociology of education and the assumed relationship between education and social reform. One aspect of this new phase in the sociology of education was to direct attention to features of schooling such as classroom interaction and curriculum organization, work which derived from the application of standard interactionist approaches. Other work was more radical (e.g. Young's work on the curriculum, and Bowles and Gintis's Schooling in Capitalist America, 1976), suggesting that schools function above all as agencies which necessarily reproduce the social relations of capitalist production. Part of the inspiration behind analysis of this type was Marxist (e.g. drawing on the conceptions of GRAMSCI and ALTHUSSER). Other sociologists, however, combined the thinking of Marx, Durkheim and Weber to achieve much the same outcome, e.g. BOURDIEU's arguments about the dependence of education on CULTURAL CAPITAL.

It would be wrong to imagine that later perspectives in the sociology of education have entirely replaced earlier ones. Nor should it be assumed that all attempts to expand educational opportunity have been to no avail. For example, in the UK the percentage of men and women entering higher education is now approaching parity the overall proportion of schoolchildren entering higher education has substantially increased since the 1950s, and the number of entrants from working-class homes has also greatly increased. On the other hand, class differences in educational achievement remain striking and the role of educational systems in sustaining a class society equally apparent. See also BERNSTEIN, HIDDEN CURRICULUM, INTELLIGENCE, MERITOCRACY, CONTEST AND SPONSORED MOBILITY.

References in periodicals archive ?
Currently, she holds a Bachelor's degree in Education and a Master's degree in Sociology of Education and Policy Studies from Kenyatta University.
A study published in the journal Sociology of Education found that participation in extracurricular activities is associated with improved grade-point average, increased college attendance and reduced absenteeism.
Eight studies look at the sociology of education from such perspectives as educational outcomes of heterogeneous groups of students in diverse contexts, school violence in China: a multilevel analysis of student victimization in rural middle schools, narratives of interdependence and independence: how social class and family relationships influence where high-achieving students apply to college, socialization experiences and research productivity of Asians and Pacific Islands: "model minority" stereotype and domestic versus international comparison, and gender gaps in student academic achievement and inequality.
Queens native Jackie Cruz, who began her doctoral studies in the sociology of education at NYU in 2014 and expects to graduate in 2020, was a fellow in the first cohort and returned this year to encourage the second class.
Grant was education editor at The Washington Post before pursuing his doctorate in the sociology of education at Harvard in 1972.
work in the Sociology of Education and subsequently serving as Acting Assistant Professor of Sociology.
Also speaking at the event and likely to heard in the Radio 4 programme were astrophysicist Dr Emma Chapman, who is a Royal Astronomical Society Fellow at Imperial College London and winner of the IOPs Very Early Career Woman Physicist of the Year Award in 2014; Professor Louise Archer, professor of sociology of education at Kings College London; and business psychologist and author Binna Kandola.
Their study, published in Sociology of Education and based on annual surveys of more than 5,000 people born between 1980 and 1984, found that so-called boomerangers had less student loan debt than young adults who didn't return home.
Yuki Honda, one of the most distinguished and eloquent experts on the sociology of education in Japan, has written many books and articles on this issue in recent years.
But by the end of the first quarter, I realized that my graduate program in the sociology of education had little to do with teaching high school and everything to do with learning how to conduct rigorous social research from real masters of the craft.
The quality of its chapters, particularly that written by Scott on field perspectives, as well as Reuf and Nag on the classification of organizational forms, will make this book an influential one within the sociology of education. International readers, in particular, should be left deciphering the relevance of this volume to their own higher education systems.

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