sociometry

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sociometry

a widely used method of ‘measurement’ of social attractiveness within groups, invented by the Austrian-born US psychologist and psychiatrist Jacob MORENO. The technique involves the administration of a questionnaire in which respondents rank order the ‘attractiveness’ and ‘unattractiveness’ of fellow group members as coparticipants or colleagues, either generally or in particular activities. The results of these interpersonal choices are then plotted on a diagram, termed a sociogram, the configuration revealing sociometric 'stars’ and ‘rejectees’. and cliques of mutual positive appraisal and social ‘isolates’.

Sociometry

 

the branch of social psychology that studies interpersonal relationships, devoting primary attention to their quantitative measurement.

The term “sociometry” was first used in the 19th century in connection with attempts to apply mathematical methods to the study of social facts. In the 20th century microsociologists, including G. Gurvitch, attempted to explain social phenomena by investigating the personal relationships between individuals. J. Moreno redefined the term “sociometry,” narrowing its meaning to the study of the relationships between individuals. He included reactionary Utopian arguments as well as experimental methods in sociometry.

With the development of social psychology the term “sociometry” has acquired a more specific meaning, denoting a group of methods used to investigate interpersonal relationships. A so-ciometric test establishes the preference, or attitude, expressed by an individual concerning interaction with other individuals in a given situation. Such a test makes it possible to describe an individual’s position within a group in terms of the individual’s own perception of it, to compare this with the reactions of other group members, and to express the interrelationships within comparable groups by formal methods, including mathematical and graphic methods.

Psychodrama and sociodrama reproduce the personal relationships that exist between individuals under study in a dramatized situation. They are used both diagnostically and therapeutically. Sociometric methods are used extensively for therapeutic purposes and in studying small groups with the aim of improving management.

REFERENCES

Moreno, J. L. Sotsiomelriia. Moscow, 1958. (Translated from German.)
Kolominskii, la. L. Psikhologiia lichnykh vzaimootnoshenii v dets-kom kollektive. Minsk, 1969.
Kuz’min, E. S. Osnovy sotsial’noipsikhologii. Leningrad, 1967.
Lektsii po metodike konkretnykh sotsial’nykh issledovanii. Moscow, 1972.
Volkov, I. P. Sotsiometricheskie metody v sotsial’no-psikhologiches-kikh issledovaniiakh. Leningrad, 1970.
Lindzey, G., and D. Byrne. “Measurement of Social Choice and Interpersonal Attractiveness.” In The Handbook of Social Psychology, vol. 2. Reading, Mass., 1968.
Northway, M. L. A Primer of Sociometry. Toronto, 1967.

V. B. OLS’HANSKII

References in periodicals archive ?
(2008) reported that adolescents with better control resources also had higher academic performance, particularly in math, and were preferred by their classmates in sociometric tests.
The researchers were able to replicate these findings in a second study that surveyed a larger and more diverse sample of participants and they found that the relationship between sociometric status and well-being could be explained, at least in part, by the sense of power and social acceptance that the students said they felt in their personal relationships.
And in a third study, Anderson and his colleagues provided evidence that the relationship between sociometric status and well-being could actually be evoked and manipulated in an experimental setting.
Another example of sociometric segmentation would be to create messages aimed at core groups within networks.
A multiperspective comparison of peer sociometric status groups in childhood and adolescence.
Prosocial children, bullies and victims: An investigation of their sociometric status, empathy and social problem-solving strategies.
Unlike books on classroom management, this book on the social psychology of interactions in the classroom covers relevant theory and research, students' and teachers' nonverbal communication, the effects of teacher expectations (including the teacher's pet phenomenon), sociometric measurement in the classroom, the social structure of the student society, and the social psychology of educating and changing students.
Relations between different types of children's aggressive behavior and sociometric status among peers of the same and opposite gender.
It thus meets every sociometric prerequisite for democracy more completely than any other Muslim nation in the region.
Prior to the implementation of the intervention, baseline data were collected using the Sociometric Rating Scale, the SSRS, and the DBR.
Contained within this vast range of activities and exercises are some 'old school' standards, Helium Stick and Minefield being two, but there are also some activities I have never encountered before: Amoeba Race and Sociometric Questions (the latter being an icebreaker).
In the following paragraphs I develop two hypotheses that explain and predict employee 'newness' perceptions of co-workers and then test them via a sociometric survey.