sociometry


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sociometry

a widely used method of ‘measurement’ of social attractiveness within groups, invented by the Austrian-born US psychologist and psychiatrist Jacob MORENO. The technique involves the administration of a questionnaire in which respondents rank order the ‘attractiveness’ and ‘unattractiveness’ of fellow group members as coparticipants or colleagues, either generally or in particular activities. The results of these interpersonal choices are then plotted on a diagram, termed a sociogram, the configuration revealing sociometric 'stars’ and ‘rejectees’. and cliques of mutual positive appraisal and social ‘isolates’.

Sociometry

 

the branch of social psychology that studies interpersonal relationships, devoting primary attention to their quantitative measurement.

The term “sociometry” was first used in the 19th century in connection with attempts to apply mathematical methods to the study of social facts. In the 20th century microsociologists, including G. Gurvitch, attempted to explain social phenomena by investigating the personal relationships between individuals. J. Moreno redefined the term “sociometry,” narrowing its meaning to the study of the relationships between individuals. He included reactionary Utopian arguments as well as experimental methods in sociometry.

With the development of social psychology the term “sociometry” has acquired a more specific meaning, denoting a group of methods used to investigate interpersonal relationships. A so-ciometric test establishes the preference, or attitude, expressed by an individual concerning interaction with other individuals in a given situation. Such a test makes it possible to describe an individual’s position within a group in terms of the individual’s own perception of it, to compare this with the reactions of other group members, and to express the interrelationships within comparable groups by formal methods, including mathematical and graphic methods.

Psychodrama and sociodrama reproduce the personal relationships that exist between individuals under study in a dramatized situation. They are used both diagnostically and therapeutically. Sociometric methods are used extensively for therapeutic purposes and in studying small groups with the aim of improving management.

REFERENCES

Moreno, J. L. Sotsiomelriia. Moscow, 1958. (Translated from German.)
Kolominskii, la. L. Psikhologiia lichnykh vzaimootnoshenii v dets-kom kollektive. Minsk, 1969.
Kuz’min, E. S. Osnovy sotsial’noipsikhologii. Leningrad, 1967.
Lektsii po metodike konkretnykh sotsial’nykh issledovanii. Moscow, 1972.
Volkov, I. P. Sotsiometricheskie metody v sotsial’no-psikhologiches-kikh issledovaniiakh. Leningrad, 1970.
Lindzey, G., and D. Byrne. “Measurement of Social Choice and Interpersonal Attractiveness.” In The Handbook of Social Psychology, vol. 2. Reading, Mass., 1968.
Northway, M. L. A Primer of Sociometry. Toronto, 1967.

V. B. OLS’HANSKII

References in periodicals archive ?
For this purpose, the following information sources were utilized to collect information regarding the subject: interviews with teacher, parents (mother) and the pupil (subject); the questionnaire form filled out by the subject's father, a problem screening test taken by the subject, classroom journal filled daily by a pupil in turn, an autobiography written by the subject, the results of "Sociometry" and "Who is this?" surveys applied for the classroom and last but not least test results to measure reading skills.
Hubbell, "An input-output approach to clique identification," Sociometry, vol.
The purpose of this exploratory study was to test the utility of sociometry and systematic observation in the study of peer relations in a sample of adolescent female volleyball players.
Foundations of Sociometry, Group Psychotherapy and Sociodrama, Beacon house Inc, New York 1978, p95.
American Board of Examiners in Psychodranra, Sociometry, and Group Psychotherapy.
La hot sociometry es la que se aplica in situ y en actum (6), es decir en la situacion, accion y momento en que se encuentra el grupo, ya sea en una sesion de psicoterapia psicodramatica o en un taller.
'The Research Center for Group Dynamics at Massachusetts Institute of Technology," Sociometry, (8:2), 1945, pp.
Weinstein and Paul Deutschberger, "Some Dimensions of Altercasting," Sociometry Vol.
(15.) Jeffrey Travers and Stanley Milgram, "An Experimental Study in the Small World Problem" Sociometry 35, no.
The Living Stage: A Step-by-Step Guide to Psychodrama, Sociometry and Experiential Group 'therapy.
Two different techniques are typically used to identify common opinion leaders: the self-designation method and sociometry (Summers, 1970).
Also, she was fascinated by my dissertation topic, which grew out of the work of Jacob Moreno, the founder of sociometry and psychodrama.