M2 PRESSWIRE-September 3, 2019-: $890 Million Sodium Hypophosphite
Market - Global Forecast to 2025
Xie and Zhang  reported the effects of bath chemistry and plating conditions on the structure and amorphous-forming region for electroless Ni-P on copper substrates in the alkaline bath solution at a bath temperature of 90[degrees]C and discovered that the deposition rates increased and approached a maximum value and then decreased with the increase in the concentration of [Ni.sup.2+], sodium hypophosphite
, and pH value, respectively.
New methods investigated incorporated citric acid, sodium hypophosphite
, Monascus anka mash, plum paste or lactic acid bacteria inoculum added separately to meat with steamed rice and salt to lower the Aw (water activity) and pH values of the products to control the microbial growth.
Cotton fibre and fabric treated with butanetetracarboxylic acid (BTCA) with the catalyst sodium hypophosphite
at different concentrations.
The reaction with the cellulose substrate proceeds ester crosslinking catalyzed by sodium hypophosphite
The first three parameters are coating parameters, namely, concentration of nickel sulphate, concentration of sodium hypophosphite
solution, and concentration of copper sulphate solution; the fourth one is the postdeposition heat treatment temperature.
Constituent elements Values in ml 100 solution Nickel sulfate 2 gr Sodium hypophosphite
0.25 gr Glycine 1 gr Citric acid 1 gr Thiourea 1-2 ppm PH 1-3 PH adjustment factor NaOH ([degrees]C) The temperature 60-80 Table 4: combination bathroom applied electric plating Ni-P.
([NaH.sub.2][PO.sub.2].[H.sub.2]O): 15g per liter.
In general, in an EN plating solution containing sodium hypophosphite
as the reducing agent, the overall reaction can be expressed as follows (17), (25):
This study examines the catalytic effect of sodium hypophosphite
Electroless nickel plating processes are based on the electrochemical reaction between nickel ions in solution and a chemical reducing agent such as sodium hypophosphite
. The reaction requires the use of a catalyst and the baths are generally operated at elevated temperatures to increase the deposition rate.
Nickel hypophosphite is a complex nickel salt that can be directly added to a nickel bath solution to provide the required oxidizing nickel ion and the reducing agent in the form of sodium hypophosphite