Observing (3), (5), and (8), the reliability of data transfer between any two sensor nodes within one hop is determined by the soft error
rate induced by the cosmic ray radiation, bit error rate induced by the on chip thermal noise, and error probability of one-hop transmission as shown in Figure 2.
First of all, the higher integration density and lower voltage/current thresholds have increased the likelihood of soft errors
Therefore, transient effects can induce a type of errors named after soft errors
. The examples of transient effects are disruptions caused by high radiation dose (dose-rate effects) or by heavy charged particle passing through a component (single event upsets--SEU) [5, 6].
Xilinx quality report for Q2 2011 states that soft error
rate for block ram (internal SRAM memory Spartan 6 family is 381 FIT/Mb.
[.sup.212]Bi would also undergo alpha decay and cause concerns for soft error
It maintains a history of every soft error
it encounters, so that if a sector appears to be going bad, Disk Technician will move the data while it is still recoverable.
(1) Soft error
Unlike a hard error, which is a fault that causes permanent malfunctioning of a semiconductor device, a soft error
is a temporary error that disappears as soon as the semiconductor device concerned is restarted or the data concerned are overwritten.
Baumann, "Soft errors
in advanced semiconductor devices-part I: the three radiation sources," IEEE Transactions on Device and Materials Reliability, vol.
The main objective of developing ACPC is to protect the configuration memory from soft error
. ACPC is used to mount custom architectures of internal configuration access port (ICAP) intellectual property is proposed.
 Martinez-Alvarez A, Restrepo-Calle F, Cuenca-Asensi S, et al., "A Hardware-Software Approach for On-line Soft Error
Mitigation in Interrupt-Driven Applications[J]," IEEE Transactions on Dependable & Secure Computing, 502-508, 2016.
It delivers a full TCAD-to-signoff flow for vertical markets including: displays, power electronics, optical devices, radiation and soft error
reliability and advanced CMOS process and IP development.
Tahoori, "Soft error
hardening for logic-level designs," in Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems(ISCAS '06), pp.