Development and properties of soil on mofette sites and interrelated processes are affected by increased C[O.sub.2] concentrations in the soil atmosphere, as recently reviewed by Rennert and Pfanz (2016).
Soils on mofette fields are natural laboratories to study the effects of enhanced C[O.sub.2] concentrations in the soil atmosphere on the dynamics of SOM, together with weathering and formation of secondary minerals.
such as soils in which the contaminant is present in association with the soil particles, dissolved in soil liquids, and in the soil atmosphere
. Because of these complexities, successful bioremediation depends on an interdisciplinary approach involving such disciplines as microbiology, engineering.
Another significant difference between the greater atmosphere and soil atmosphere
is that soil atmospheres
are nearly always close to 100 percent relative humidity despite the appearance of being air dry and long periods of drought (Coleman and Crossley, 1996).
Assume the concentration of [O.sub.2] in the soil atmosphere
is 0.3 kg m-3 and the diffusion coefficient is 1.98 X [10.sup.-5] [m.sup.2] [s.sup.-1.]
Galbally IE, Kirstine WV, Meyer CP, Wang YP (2008) Soil atmosphere
trace gas exchange in semiarid and arid zones.
The [N.sub.2]O concentrations above the soil surface and in the soil atmosphere were linearly interpolated to estimate [N.sub.2]O fluxes ([N.sub.2]O_[flux.sub.gradient]) using Fick's 1st Law (Campbell 1985):
Soil atmosphere [N.sub.2]O concentrations following urine application (measured by probes)
Also, gaseous exchange between the soil atmosphere
and aboveground will be more rapid from the upper soil layers, particularly as the 0-20 mm layer had a lower volumetric water content.
Kemper and Amemiya (1957) found irrigation water moving into the soil forced the soil atmosphere near the surface to greater depths and also carried dissolved oxygen in the water itself.
Following substrate addition, the mole fraction of [N.sub.2] in the soil atmosphere released from the [15.sup]N-labelled pool (d), as defined by Mulvaney and Boast (1986), varied with soil depth (P < 0.001).
Stefanson RC (1970) Sealed growth chambers for studies of the effects of plants on the soil atmosphere
. Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research 15, 295-301.