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a. the nonstandard use of a grammatical construction
b. any mistake, incongruity, or absurdity
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



in poetics, an incorrect turn of speech used as a stylistic element; a figure of speech generally used to create a “low” style. As with other figures of speech, there are different types of solecisms. These are solecism formed by addition (pleonasm), by omission (ellipsis), and by substitution. The last type is divided into morphological solecism, or enallage, as in “of taking a walk there can be no question” or “citizen, don’t let’s,” and syntactical solecism, or anacoluthon, as in “I order that a warning be given that he should calm his madness, and that there is a limit to everything.”

In linguistics, solecism is an incorrect choice of a grammatical form for a syntactic structure. An example is the incorrect colloquial Russian use of skol’ko vremia (“what time is it?”) instead of the correct skol’ko vremeni. Here the nominative form of vremia (“time”) is incorrectly used after skol’ko (“how much”) instead of the grammatically correct genitive (vremeni). Another example is the French Quoiqu’il est tard (incorrect use of indicative for subjunctive) instead of the correct Quoiqu’il soit tard.

Solecisms may result from the influence of dialectical speech. They may also be caused by violation of the rules for agreement of parts of a sentence. An example of this is “Anyone who needs care in a sanatorium, it is necessary to provide it” instead of “. . . will be provided with it.” Solecisms may also result from violation of the rules for agreement of main and subordinate clauses, as in “I am ashamed, as an honorable officer” (A. S. Griboedov).

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
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It's a pity that this solecism occurs on such a magnificent disc: it would surely have caused a conflagration in London if the original singers' supporters had been able to hear the two-soprano repertory in this concentration.
Berg's Lyric Suite is too wispy to support frenetic dance, and it was a solecism to tack one of Wagner's Wesendonck Lieder onto the final, reconciliatory bars of Verklarte Nacht, the Schoenberg work that dancelovers will associate with Antony Tudor's great Pillar of Fire.
On the other hand (and one participant called for scientists to have only one hand and to avoid this "solecism"), the participants gathered to begin identifying issues and areas for research.
On the one side, then, Quintilian allows that, while pure Latin may be corrupted by barbarism and solecism, such defects may be overlooked because they appear in ordinary speech, or in the canon, or because they are old, or even because they closely resemble figures and tropes (I v 5, cf 40).
This linguistic solecism occurs when figures of speech create images that are bizarre or ridiculous or impossible.
Tielessness, admittedly, is also absent, which many might consider a worse sartorial solecism than socklessness, but tielessness is surely more of a fashion statement, while socklessness tends to be a matter forced upon a fellow by the vagaries of washing machines or the inherent turmoil of wardrobe drawers.
Tharoor -- who chaired a talk by political theoretician and Labour MP in Britain's House of Lords, Bhikhu Parekh -- committed what in the Congress book is the ultimate solecism.
Incidentally, it's interesting to see the way that this sort of solecism is defended on the grounds that "it's a living language" - because this is itself a minor miracle, as it's murdered a million times a day..
"HMS" stands for "His (or Her) Majesty's Ship" and to refer to a British warship as "the HMS" is as gross a solecism as referring to "the Hoi Polloi."
The following solecism ran in this column in May 2000; were you paying attention?
The first clause corresponds neither to the words of consecration in the Catholic liturgy nor to the words of institution in any of the Synoptic Gospels or the first epistle to the Corinthians in the Vulgate text of the Bible, and the second clause contains, in addition, a solecism. Why are these clauses in the book?
It is full of junk history, such as the rustic ideal of the country cottage, which he appears not to realize is an entirely modern idea; or the tiresome solecism, that everyone likes 'Georgian' architecture, but that 'speculative development' is necessarily bad.