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The process of swelling, gelling, or dissolving of a material by a solvent; for resins, the solvent can be a plasticizer.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



the association of molecules of a solvent with molecular, ionic, or particulate solute units. When the association involves water molecules, solvation is referred to as hydration.

Solvation results in the formation of solvates (hydrates), which are compounds of definite or, more often, indefinite composition. The molecules of the solvent are associated with the molecules or ions of the solvated substance through forces of various types and intensities, from weak forces of molecular interaction to the forces of chemical bonds. In solutions, the solvent molecules involved in solvation create spheres of solvation around the molecules or ions of solute.

A distinction is usually made between primary solvation, the interaction of molecules or ions of a substance with the closest molecules of solvent, and secondary solvation, the interaction of molecules or ions that have undergone primary solvation with more distant solvent molecules. When the solvation is complete, all the molecules of the solvent are associated with the spheres of solvation; that is, they enter the sphere of action of the force field of the molecules or ions of solute.

Solvation acts on the thermodynamic and other properties of the solution; it causes the electrolytic dissociation of electrolytes in polar solvents, the solubility of nonelectrolytes, and many liquid-phase chemical reactions. Solvation of molecules or ions of the surface layer is an extremely important factor in the stabilization of disperse systems having a high degree of dispersion in a liquid dispersion medium (sols, ladees, emulsions). Solvation may occur not only in a liquid solvent but also during the sorption by a substance of solvent vapors from a gaseous medium.


Entelis, S. G., and R. P. Tiger. Kinetika reaktsii v zhidkoi faze. Moscow, 1973.
Matiash, I. V. Voda v kondensirovannykh sredakh. Kiev, 1971.
Kariakin, A. V., and G. A. Kriventsova. Sostoianie vody v organi-cheskikh i neorganicheskikh soedineniiakh.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Since ethanol would solvate L better than [LH.sup.+], the log[beta] values, which are related to the formation of [LH.sup.+], would decrease upon addition of ethanol.
As with liquids, similar structures tend to solvate into each other, so this is always a factor.
Processing can also be achieved by dissolving the block copolymer in a solvent that will solvate both phases.
Prorex 15 is a mild extraction solvate, a lower aromaticity alternative developed to meet certain customer specifications.
For G3 starch, the granular shape could not be observed using an optical microscope because the excessive glycerol strongly solvated the solvate starch and formed a large lump that could not be pulverized using a crusher owing to its high flexibility and stickiness.
Its use is not limited solely to the determination of purity, polymorphs, solvates and hydrates, melting point, and component quantification but also allows the characterization of the surface properties of powders, such as humectants, adsorbents, and surface energy, thus constituting a useful tool in decision making in the case of problems related to the production process.
For residual solvent control in early development, established ICH limits should be followed." The limits may be set higher than the ICH limits if they are realistically based on the manufacturing process capabilities and if there is low toxicity potential (e.g., Class 3 solvents that form solvates with the DS)." (6)
Owing to its polarity and high dielectric constant it acts as solvent for organic and inorganic compounds and forms many stable solvates [3-4].
DNA and RNA are readily soluble in aqueous environments, as the water interacts (solvates) the nucleic acid through its H-bonding capacity.
The bubbles expand and condense into a liquid that solvates and softens degraded resins and remnants of the previous color or material.