somatostatin


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Related to somatostatin: Octreotide

Somatostatin

A naturally occurring regulatory peptide that carries out numerous functions in the human body, including the inhibition of growth hormone secretion from the anterior pituitary gland. Somatostatin consists of 14 amino acids; two cysteine residues are joined by a disulfide bond so that the peptide forms a ring structure. A larger variant of this peptide, called somatostatin-28, is produced in some cells and has an additional 14 amino acids attached at the amino-terminal end of normal somatostatin (somatostatin-14).

Somatostatin acts primarily as a negative regulator of a variety of different cell types, blocking processes such as cell secretion, cell growth, and smooth muscle contraction. It is secreted from the hypothalamus into the portal circulation and travels to the anterior pituitary gland, where it inhibits the production and release of both growth hormone and thyroid-stimulating hormone. Many tissues other than the hypothalamus contain somatostatin, suggesting that this peptide has numerous roles.

Each of the functions of somatostatin is initiated by the binding of the peptide to one or more of five different cell-surface receptor proteins, thereby activating one or more intracellular G-proteins and initiating biochemical signaling pathways within the cell. See Signal transduction

Analogs of somatostatin have been synthesized that are smaller, more potent, longer-lasting, and more specific in their biological effects than natural somatostatin. Some of these analogs have become useful as drugs. See Endocrine system (vertebrate), Hormone, Neurosecretion, Pituitary gland

somatostatin

[¦sō·məd·ə′stat·ən]
(biochemistry)
A peptide secreted by the hypothalamus which acts primarily to inhibit the release of growth hormone from the anterior pituitary.
References in periodicals archive ?
The different samples were worm lysates collected from mice that at Week 8 of infection received none (AC), 2 days (A2) or 5 days (A5) somatostatin treatment, and worm lysates collected from mice that at Week 16 of infection received none (CC), 2 days (C2) or 5 days (C5) somatostatin treatment.
Somatostatin receptor-targeted radionuclide therapy of tumors: Preclinical and clinical findings.
The clinical-molecular interface of somatostatin, dopamine and their receptors in pituitary pathophysiology.
Somatostatin injections slightly relieved symptoms for a short time.
This case illustrates a false-positive PET study with the radio-labeled somatostatin receptor (SSR) ligand, [sup.
Source ([dagger]) Dilution Chromogranin M M869 Dako 1:2500 Insulin P 299-230 Cambridge 1:100 Glucagon P A565 Dako 1:10 000 Gastrin P 1537 Immunotech 1:2000 Somatostatin P A566 Dako 1:3000 GRP P A429 Dako 1:1000 * M indicates monoclonal antibody; P, polyclonal antibody; and GRP, gastrin-releasing peptide.
GBI Research, the leading business intelligence provider, has released its latest research Endocrinology Market to 2018 - Advanced Injection Devices for Growth Hormone and Somatostatin will Improve Ease of Use for Patients, which provides insights into endocrinology until 2018.
The product received approval based on the findings of a phase three trial named NETTER-1 and also by a subset of efficacy and safety data from a single-arm, open-label trial in The Netherlands in more than 1,200 patients with somatostatin receptor positive tumours.
of Lodz, Poland) introduces somatostatin (SST) as a peptide that exerts a broad spectrum of physiological effects.
NEW ORLEANS -- The addition of a dopamine agonist to somatostatin analogue therapy appears to help control acromegaly, regardless of initial prolactin levels, Dinesh Selvarajah, M.
Immunoreactivity for pancreatic polypeptide and somatostatin stains was negative.
TORONTO -- Long-acting somatostatin analogues show considerable promise for the treatment of disparate serious diseases ranging from diabetic retinopathy to Craves' ophthalmopathy, acromegaly, and even some forms of obesity.

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