This became known as the acoustical impedance mismatch theory and the goal was then to have the impedance (density times the sonic velocity
) of the rock match the impedance (density times the detonation velocity) of the explosive to maximize the energy of the shock wave going into the rock.
The velocity of sound through sedimentary rocks depend on lithology and porosity, shale has the lowest sonic velocity
, while limestone and dolomite have higher velocities; the velocity of sound is slower and need long travel time when travel through liquids and gas, while at compact zone this velocity is fast and need short travel time to reach receivers.
A distinct enhancement of sonic velocities and elastic moduli (~18% for longitudinal sonic velocity
) is seen only in the epoxy composite with the enlarged GNP content (2 w%) produced with application of vacuum mixing because of the minimal content of air in nanocarbon filler agglomerates (Fig.
For the concentration determination, sonic velocity
meters have proven to be ideal, as sonic velocity
forms a strong and unambiguous function to the concentration of sulfuric acid and oleum in the production-relevant concentration ranges.
test is one among the numerous non- destructive and indirect test which is commonly employed to estimate the UCS of rocks.
She describes how the "sonic velocity
" in some movies can function as the equivalent of--and also equivalent in importance to--the visible 'spectacle'.
The Solutions When the Mass Moves at Sonic Velocity
A computer terminal--referred to as the master station--runs leak detection software to poll each of the site stations once per minute for a wide range of data, including standard volumetric flow rate, liquid temperature, sonic velocity
and meter diagnostics.
Analysis methodology: Fundamental design methodology used for C nozzle to obtain sonic velocity
Beck's recently patented de-watering system uses sonic velocity
compressed air in a specific way that atomises water from cans, bottles and jars.
Air approaches sonic velocity
when flowing from a high-pressure area to a low-pressure area.
The Series NXT3000 eliminates the need to use differential pressure regulators by using an ejector that produces very high vacuum pressures, which pull the gas through the system at sonic velocity
. The Series NXT3000 is designed for capacities up to 500 PPD.