These methods primarily involve hydrogen peroxide, ozone, UV-near visible light in the presence of Ti[O.sub.2], the Fenton reagent, sonolysis
, and the sulfate radical-based AOP .
Acoustic cavitation during sonolysis
enhances mass transfer and the diffusion of chemical species and therefore increases the reaction rate [32, 33].
Evidence against singlet oxygen formation by sonolysis
of aqueous oxygen-saturated solutions of hematopor- phyrin and rose Bengal: the mechanism of sonodynamic therapy.
(clots lysis using ultrasound and microbubbles) is an approach that induces microbubbles (MBs) oscillations to cause clot disruption and restore perfusion, which could potentially accelerate clots dissolution even without the introduction of drugs.
coli inactivation was studied at two different sonolysis
time (15 and 30 minutes).
The degree of decomposition by sonophotolysis was more than that by sonolysis
. The reason for the observed enhancement in the rate may be due to increased generation of highly reactive free radicals such as hydroxyl ( OH ), hydrogen (Ho), and hydroperoxy (HO o ) .
The observed decrease on k as the initial concentration of pyridine increases can be explained in terms of the less availability of oxidizing species, such as OH radicals, through the direct photolysis or sonolysis
of [H.sub.2]O as the concentration of the solution gets more intense.
Spectroscopic analysis of [C.sub.2.sup.*] emission bands (Swan band [d.sup.3][[PI].sub.g]-[a.sup.3][[PI].sub.u]) during sonolysis
at 20 kHz of argonsaturated silicon oil gives the effective cavitation temperature of about 5000 K .
Kamat, "Combinative sonolysis
and photocatalysis for textile dye degradation, " Environmental Science and Technology, vol.
A recently published meta-analysis of sonolysis
and sonothrombolysis included 10 studies (seven randomized control trials and three case control studies) .