Equation (14) in  gives the taper efficiency as the ratio of the squared magnitude of the aperture-area-normalized on-axis space factor divided by the aperture-area-normalized area integral of the square of the distribution.
Borrowing terminology from antenna array theory, the T term in (10) is referred to as the radiation pattern's space factor , and the (1 + cos [theta]) term in (10) as the element factor, or obliquity factor, of a Huygen's source .
The simplest aperture distribution that produces a sum pattern is a constant, and in that case the resulting space factor T is solved with the help of  (5.52.1) as
In this manner, the simplest example of a distribution that produces a difference pattern is a constant times cos [psi], in which case (30) is the space factor for the resulting difference pattern, determined using  (6.561.1), where [H.sub.0](z) and [H.sub.1](z) are respectively the Struve functions of order zero and one.
Derivation of (18), the Generalized Space Factor Integral
Derivation of (30), the Space Factor of the Simplest Difference Pattern
Derivation of (32), the 3PS Radiation Pattern Space Factor
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in eight large signage opportunities for a potential tenant, including two signs that rise 180 ft up the side of the building.