Therefore, space-charge effects
at the interface between small particles can result in substantial improvement of the electrical, magnetic, and optical properties [5-7].
The origin of this equation is not dipolar but can be due to the space-charge effects
. The equation is written as:
Such oscillations in linear relativistic electron beams may be caused either by the formation of virtual cathodes (when an injected beam current exceeds the limiting current defined by space-charge effects
) or by low-potential electrodes reflecting streaming particles.