These performance levels were achieved in part by optimising the engine design and in part by introducing innovations, such as the use of a 350 bar direct injection system for the very first time on a spark-ignition engine
, and the control system for the variable geometry inlet tracts, developed on naturally- aspirated F1 engines, which is a further evolution on its application on the special limited-series F12tdf.
(4) A condition in which the ratio of gasoline to air is reduced to a level that would not ignite in a spark-ignition engine
As Table 1 and Figure 2 show, four conversion technologies--the steam turbine, combustion turbine, spark-ignition engine
, and compression-ignition engine--are responsible for 65.4% of all energy consumption in the United States.
Combining the modified V6 petrol engine with a compact hybrid module makes the S 400 BlueHybrid the world's most economical luxury saloon with a spark-ignition engine
, a statement said.
Dr Tom Shenton, Reader in Engineering at the University, said: "The key to reducing emissions in the spark-ignition engine
is improved control and for the last one hundred years the primary means of ignition control has been the spark plug.
This version has an overall range of up to 600 km and can cover a distance of up to 100 km using electric drive alone." The combination of a modified V6 petrol engine and a compact hybrid module makes the S 400 BlueHYBRID the world's most economical luxury saloon with a spark-ignition engine
, the company said.
The result enables the use of a much smaller spark-ignition engine
that can deliver fuel economy and C[O.sub.2] performance approaching today's high-performance diesels, in a lower cost package and with better driveability, claims Barker.
The Le Mans success is now set to herald a new era in spark-ignition engine
technology, leading to the system being introduced to production Audis in the near future, when fuel savings of around 15 per cent will be possible.
In those early days, the operating radius of a car powered by a spark-ignition engine
(on one tank of fuel) was nearly triple that of an electric (before requiring battery recharging) and four times that of a steam car (before requiring water).