spasm


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spasm,

involuntary rigid muscle contraction, often persistent and often accompanied by pain. It usually has some underlying physical cause such as disease, strain, or injury to the muscle or nearby tissues, impairment of circulation, or a disturbance of body chemistry. The spasm may be confined to one group of muscles or it may be severe and fairly generalized, as in convulsionsconvulsion,
sudden, violent, involuntary contraction of the muscles of the body, often accompanied by loss of consciousness. It is not known what causes the abnormal impulses from the brain that result in convulsive seizures, since the disturbance may arise in normal brain
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. Painless localized spasms are called tics. These purposeless movements, usually of some part of the face, may begin as purposeful movement in response to some stimulus but eventually are carried out automatically, apparently without reason. They may disappear spontaneously after a time, or may require the elimination of some physical or psychic cause.

Spasm

 

an involuntary tonic contraction (cramp) of a muscle or group of muscles. Spasms may affect striated skeletal muscles (for example, with certain paralyses) or smooth muscles. Subject to spasms are the smooth muscles of the vascular wall (for instance, during angina pectoris), the bronchi, the esophagus (cardiospasm), and the intestine. Skeletal-muscle spasms make movement difficult, and smooth-muscle spasms disrupt various functions of organs.


Spasm

 

a sudden involuntary muscular contraction marked by extreme tension. Two types of spasms are distinguished: tonic and clonic. In tonic spasm, the tension persists for a long time, and in clonic spasm, there are synchronous jerking muscular contractions, which may be diffuse or limited. Spasms of different muscle groups are designated by specific terms, for example, trismus (spasm of the masticatory muscles) and blepharospasm (spasm of the ring muscle of the eye). Clonic spasms of the entire body are sometimes called convulsions.

Spasm may arise spontaneously or as a reaction to external influences, for example, spasm of the gastrocnemius muscles after chilling in water. It may also result from internal influences, for example, tension of the abdominal muscles in peritonitis. Spasm may be a manifestation of epilepsy, eclampsia, spasmophilia, inflammation, brain tumor and trauma, and many other disorders. In addition to spasm of striated muscles, there is spasm of smooth muscles, for example, cardiospasm and pylorospasm. In children, spasm is most common at a very early age, owing to the structure and functioning of the brain at this stage of life; it results from infection, poisoning, trauma, and various psychogenic factors.

Spasm is treated by caring for the underlying disorder and by administering such anticonvulsants as phenobarbital, primidone, and diphenylhydantoin. The affected person should get sufficient sleep and should abstain from alcohol.

V. A. KARLOV

spasm

[′spaz·əm]
(medicine)
An involuntary and abnormal contraction of isolated bundles of muscle or groups of muscles resulting from a chemical imbalance due to fatigue, ischemia, or trauma.

spasm

an involuntary muscular contraction, esp one resulting in cramp or convulsion
References in periodicals archive ?
Patients of either gender between 18 and 55 years of age with acute musculoskeletal spasm associated with pain, as diagnosed by the orthopedic surgeon, were included in the trial.
The best treatment response, as indicated by spasm remission, was with vigabatrin (50%), followed by ACTH, lamotrigine and levetiracetam (33.
The abduction deficit of functional convergence spasm.
The diagnosis of coronary artery spasm was not considered as it typically involves a temporary tightening of only one of the coronary arteries.
2) Myasthenia gravis: the main symptoms were eyelid weakness and blepharoptosis, while the patients' symptoms were muscle spasm of eyelids and mouth, so we did not consider Myasthenia gravis.
The report provides a snapshot of the global therapeutic landscape of Infantile Spasm (West Syndrome)
Caption: Figure 2: (a) Coronary angiography from the day after admission with only a possible spasm in the left main coronary artery (LMCA) and no spasms in the left anterior descending or circumflex (CX) coronary artery (b) Third coronary angiography performed 6 days after admission showing LMCA and ostial CX stenosis.
With treatment there was significant decrease in number of spasm per day from 60 to less than 10.
ST-elevation myocardial infarction secondary to coronary artery spasm provoked by food.
Sutton now seeks a third party licensee to manufacture, market, and distribute the Sutton Spasm Relief for him under a royalty agreement.
Spontaneous multivessel coronary artery spasm can present with a myriad of presentations varying from variant angina to complicated acute myocardial infarction.
When I am choking during a spasm, vomiting and coughing up blood because my lungs are contracting so hard, I can see the look of fear on Jason's face," Lindsey added.