Accordingly, potential habitats can be extrapolated and predicted at a larger scale by GIS-based spatial linkage between the species and the associated types of HSU (Figure 5).
Through overlaying the spatial data of the ecogeographic factors using GIS, the spatial linkages between the HSUs and the focal species were thus built by detecting and identifying the dominant HSUs for each focal species within their existing habitats.
The flows of agricultural commodities from rural to urban markets and in turn flows of manufactured and imported goods from urban areas to rural settlements, which is a typology of spatial linkage
, is generally poor.
This undergraduate engineering textbook introduces the fundamental concepts of mechanism kinematics, synthesis, statics, and dynamics for planar and spatial linkages
, cam systems, gear systems, and robotic manipulators using realistic illustration and practical problems.
The statistical results generated with the help of CFI analysis along with the urbanization trends in the province are visualized through GIS technology to identify the spatial linkages
/bonds within concentration of industrial development, urbanization and disaster risks in the province.
Specific topics include initial regional conditions for economic development, other important factors for economic development, spatial linkages
between regions, linkage structures in regions where industrial agglomeration, spatial repercussions of final demand, and spillover and feedback effects between regions.
While acknowledging 'critical relationships' with London, the policy approach does not indicate what spatial linkages
Research has tended to focus on special-purpose GIS analyses such as: routing and emergency planning (Dunn 1992); locality planning (Curtis 1989); assessing exposure boundaries and populations at risk (Stallones, Nichols, and Berry 1992); generating spatial linkages
between healthcare providers and consumers (Verhasselt 1993); and characterizing hospital service areas (McLafferty 1988; Wrigley 1991; Zwarenstein, Krige, and Wolff 1991; Gesler, Walsh, Crawford, et al.
The three synthesis chapters will be very useful resources for graduate students or faculty wanting a quick update on the state of our understanding on indirect effects (Abrams et al.), the relationship between ecosystem productivity and consumer regulation (Petsson et al.), and spatial linkages
among ecosystems (Polis et al.).
For example: as compared with the large enterprises small enterprises have a relatively higher average cost of production per unit of output; they generate lower output per worker, have lower wages, and usually employ the most vulnerable sections of the working population; they generate higher output per unit of capital; small enterprises using modern technology have enormous growth potential, and are important also because of spatial linkages
; the very small enterprises are only rarely more labour-intensive, etc.