Although graph-based methods are useful to remove spatial redundancy
, they are characterized by high complexity due to the computational cost of constructing graph.
Temporal redundancy and spatial redundancy
can be reduced by registering differences between frames and parts of a single frame.
To improve the detection and diagnosis precision and timeliness and realize multisensor composite faults, a double redundancy strategy, that is, spatial redundancy
and time redundancy, is utilized.
The redundancy of image data represents spatial redundancy
as a result of the correlation between the pixels of adjacent parts of the image; timing redundancy as a result of the correlations between frames in the image sequence; and spectrum redundancy caused by the correlations between different color planes or frequencies [4-7].
Each GOP is a sequence of frames encoded as: intra frame (I frame), if only spatial redundancy
is exploited for the frame compression; prediction (P frame) from previous frames, if both temporal and spatial redundancy
are exploited for the frame compression; bidirectional (B frame) prediction when the temporal prediction is computed from previous and future frames.
We integrate improved CCSDS-IDC and distributed source coding by deep coupling way to remove the spatial redundancy
, spectral redundancy, and bit information redundancy.
However, the proposed algorithm only considers the spatial redundancy
in sensor data .
The KoggeStone adder is of interest for its minimal logic depth and fanout and for the spatial redundancy
in the carry tree which can be exploited for fault tolerant purposes described below.
Atheros SST increases the total transmit power and spatial redundancy
, ensuring dropout-free coverage.
The MPEG video compression algorithm  relies on two basic techniques: block-based motion compensation for the reduction of the temporal redundancy and transform domain-(DCT) based compression for the reduction of spatial redundancy
. Motion-compensated techniques are applied with both causal (pure predictive coding) and noncausal predictors (interpolative coding).
Thus, IntraBC exploits spatial redundancy
within a specified search range.