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English daily periodical published jointly by Joseph AddisonAddison, Joseph,
1672–1719, English essayist, poet, and statesman. He was educated at Charterhouse, where he was a classmate of Richard Steele, and at Oxford, where he became a distinguished classical scholar.
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 and Richard SteeleSteele, Sir Richard,
1672–1729, English essayist and playwright, b. Dublin. After studying at Charterhouse and Oxford, he entered the army in 1694 and rose to the rank of captain by 1700. His first book, a moral tract entitled The Christian Hero, appeared in 1701.
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 with occasional contributions from other writers. It succeeded the Tatler, a periodical begun by Steele on Apr. 12, 1709, under the pseudonym Isaac Bickerstaff. The Tatler appeared twice weekly until it ended Jan. 2, 1711. The Spectator began Mar. 1, 1711, appearing as a daily, and lasted until Dec. 6, 1712. Valuable as social history, the papers (dated from various London coffeehouses) provide an excellent commentary on the manners, morals, and literature of the day. The Spectator was supposedly written by members of a small club, representing figures of the British middle class: Sir Roger de Coverley (country gentry), Captain Sentry (military), Sir Andrew Freeport (commerce), Will Honeycomb (town), and Mr. Spectator himself. Addison joined Steele in writing the Tatler and continued his collaboration with him, writing about the same number of articles, in the Spectator. Both periodicals had a tremendous influence on public opinion and gave great impetus to the growth of journalism and periodical writing. The Spectator, which was succeeded by the Guardian, was revived for a time by Addison in 1714.


See edition of the Spectator by G. Smith (1945); studies by G. S. Streatfeild (1923) and R. P. Bond (1971).



a British weekly journal of conservative orientation. Published in London since 1828, Spectator deals with political, economic, and cultural issues. Circulation, more than 30,000 (1975).

References in periodicals archive ?
14) While Lewes's theories of type acting, spectatorial consensus, and sympathetic recognition may seem to derive from those older constructions of identity, their abstraction from actual social exchange in fact places them firmly within mid-Victorian notions of theatricality.
Through its attachment to the invisible work that makes it possible and the violence that permeates it, the spectacle maintains a life and dynamic of its own that lies beyond the power of the spectatorial eye to entirely comprehend and assimilate.
The explosive image marks the close of Michael's time in Sicily, and the cinematic cut from blasted vehicle to black illustrates that one of his tragic flaws is a refusal to entertain spectatorial crisis.
5) It is discerning and inspiring because it analyzes both the advantages and the hazards of the spectatorial position in a sober way, with no emotional bias.
To demonstrate what he means by the spectator's consciousness, Althusser points out that we taust relinquish two classical models of spectatorial consciousness:
Such a politically charged image, blurring the line between past and present, precludes the spectatorial enjoyment of what has become a set-piece of almost all "Regency" films since Becky Sharp, Rouben Mamoulian's 1935 adaptation of Thackeray's Vanity Fair--i.
He points out that "there was no original moment of spectatorial mastery which later generations of critics must struggle heroically to recover" and that the topicalities ensured that "incomprehension is a built-in feature of burlesques" (39, 42).
Winner of the Irish 2,000 Guineas and Dubai Champion Stakes, Spectrum has also sired international Group 1 winners Gamut (in France), Barakada, Spectatorial and Wild Iris (in Australia).
It will be suggested that moments of sonic connection in Bad Boy Bubby open up new possibilities of auratorial and spectatorial identification, interpretation and affective response.
In her construction of this scene, Petry deftly merges the spectatorial gaze that Bub is cultivating in his private game with the full-blown scopophilia of the man who functions increasingly as his mentor:
4) By withholding our activity, however, we can transform our practical perception into a detached, spectatorial perception of qualities that are experienced as independent of the object they qualify.
Susan Blake's observation that "the central conflict of Cane is the struggle of the spectatorial artist to involve himself in his material" (196) underlines how an understanding of Cane as a dialectic between liberation and domination subtends the artist's struggles to strike a modernist posture toward the African American subject.