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English daily periodical published jointly by Joseph AddisonAddison, Joseph,
1672–1719, English essayist, poet, and statesman. He was educated at Charterhouse, where he was a classmate of Richard Steele, and at Oxford, where he became a distinguished classical scholar.
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 and Richard SteeleSteele, Sir Richard,
1672–1729, English essayist and playwright, b. Dublin. After studying at Charterhouse and Oxford, he entered the army in 1694 and rose to the rank of captain by 1700. His first book, a moral tract entitled The Christian Hero, appeared in 1701.
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 with occasional contributions from other writers. It succeeded the Tatler, a periodical begun by Steele on Apr. 12, 1709, under the pseudonym Isaac Bickerstaff. The Tatler appeared twice weekly until it ended Jan. 2, 1711. The Spectator began Mar. 1, 1711, appearing as a daily, and lasted until Dec. 6, 1712. Valuable as social history, the papers (dated from various London coffeehouses) provide an excellent commentary on the manners, morals, and literature of the day. The Spectator was supposedly written by members of a small club, representing figures of the British middle class: Sir Roger de Coverley (country gentry), Captain Sentry (military), Sir Andrew Freeport (commerce), Will Honeycomb (town), and Mr. Spectator himself. Addison joined Steele in writing the Tatler and continued his collaboration with him, writing about the same number of articles, in the Spectator. Both periodicals had a tremendous influence on public opinion and gave great impetus to the growth of journalism and periodical writing. The Spectator, which was succeeded by the Guardian, was revived for a time by Addison in 1714.


See edition of the Spectator by G. Smith (1945); studies by G. S. Streatfeild (1923) and R. P. Bond (1971).



a British weekly journal of conservative orientation. Published in London since 1828, Spectator deals with political, economic, and cultural issues. Circulation, more than 30,000 (1975).

References in periodicals archive ?
We are already beginning to witness the emergence of a more polyphonic, multisensory, and downright noisy kind of spectatorship.
Here, the evaluation of spectatorship can be referred into the status of a gaze, especially Sartre's notion of the existential gaze, or le regard, which Sartre uses to empower the spectator as the holder of the gaze with the capacity to undermine the agency of another rather than a merely passive figure (Green, 2009).
This chapter is a valuable addition to the book as it broadens the scope of Middleton's investigation of spectatorship into the realm of affect and offers a scholarly analysis of a popular yet understudied genre of online videos.
My research into spectatorship practices at Shakespeare's Globe has sought to uncover more about the strategies, desires, and assumptions that inform audience response to this new-old theater.
Regarding Rape: Fictions of Origin and Film Spectatorship.
On the one hand, we can state this as we did above: identification is a far stranger, far more diverse process than we have been able to account for, and this diversity is worth attending to, if only to get a better grip on the phenomenon of spectatorship.
Our students were changing: today they are "native" to digital media more than live performance, and they push us to think of theatre and spectatorship across and through media.
She examines this so-called "progressive" era first in terms of its spectatorship, then compares progressivism and early feature films, and examines the new consciousness of self-celebrity amongst actors and directors.
Sport spectatorship features about as highly in an average weekend in my world as basket weaving or a nice origami workshop - i.
Doha: Tomorrow's launch of beIN SPORTS promises to surpass existing boundaries of spectatorship, essentially changing the game for sports fans across the Middle East and North Africa (Mena) region.
There were constantly changing arguments about what the sciences are, where poetry fits in, how print media and the visual arts were transforming the shapes of public knowledge and spectatorship.
This is precisely the task Filewod sets himself and, in the test of the chapters, he reconstructs both specific plays and a broader culture of political performance and active spectatorship central to Canadian culture over the past two centuries.