Dipyrone was found to reduce the tonus of the sphincter of Oddi
in humans, which possibly indicates another mechanism of action on biliary colic, in addition to the analgesic effect (79).
Intrasphincteric injection of botulinum toxin for suspected sphincter of Oddi
As is well known, for the treatment of choledocholithiasis, although EST and lithotomy may achieve good therapeutic effects, function of the sphincter of Oddi
is damaged, resulting in postoperative reflux of duodenal fluid and bacterial contamination in bile, increasing the risks of recurrent common bile duct stones, reflux cholangitis, and even cholangiocarcinoma.
The morphine-prostigmine provocation (Nardi) test for sphincter of Oddi
dysfunction: results in healthy volunteers and in patients before and after transduodenal sphincteroplasty and transampullary septectomy.
Also, it probably led to dysfunction of the sphincter of Oddi
and to greater duodenal reflux.
Corazziari, "Gallbladder and sphincter of Oddi
disorders," Gastroenterology, vol.
It is reported in the literature that stones in the common bile duct occur significantly more often in patients with diverticuli [12,13], indicating that the anatomical abnormality and malfunction of the sphincter of Oddi
possibly play an important role in the formation of stones .
[7,8] Alteration of motility of the gallbladder and sphincter of Oddi
leading to biliary stasis resulting in cholesterol crystal formation has been reported with iron deficiency.
(12) Others have advocated endoscopic injection of botulinum into the sphincter of Oddi
to differentiate pain arising from the sphincter of Oddi
from pain in the gallbladder.
(1,2) The AoV has an anatomic layer of mucosa, the sphincter of Oddi
, perisphincteric or duodenal submucosa, and duodenal proper muscle, which correspond to the mucosa, muscularis mucosa, submucosa, and proper muscle layers of other gastrointestinal tract organs, respectively.
 Moreover, TENS has been shown to relax the lower oesophageal sphincter in patients with achalasia and to relax the sphincter of Oddi
in patients with biliary dyskinesia.