Analysis of the sphingomyelin
phosphodiesterase 1 gene (SMPD1) in Turkish Niemann-Pick disease patients: mutation profile and description of a novel mutation.
Carey, "Dietary sphingomyelin
suppresses intestinal cholesterol absorption by decreasing thermodynamic activity of cholesterol monomers," Gastroenterology, vol.
There are several ways to generate ceramide in mammalian cells (Figure 1): hydrolysis of sphingomyelin
, de novo synthesis from palmitoyl-CoA and serine, catabolism of glucosylceramide and galactosylceramide, synthesis from sphingosine and fatty acid, and dephosphorylation of ceramide-1-phosphate.
SM can also be used to synthesize PC as the donor of PPC that is added to diacylglycerol by the reverse sphingomyelin
synthase (RSM-synthase) .
FSGS: Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis GalT-KO: Alpha-1,3-galactosyltransferase knockout HAR: Hyperacute rejection h: Human hDAF: Human decay-accelerating factor MCD: Minimal change disease MHC: Major histocompatibility complex NHP: Nonhuman primates PBL: Peripheral blood lymphocytes POD: Postoperative day SMPDL-3b: Sphingomyelin
phosphodiesterase acid-like 3b Tg: Transgenic VTL: Vascularized thymic lobe XKTx: Xenogeneic kidney transplantation.
Traditional biomarkers CA 19-9, CEA Proteomics CEMIP, C4BPA, IGFBP2, IGFBP3 Metabolites M2-pyruvate kinase (M2-PK), palmitic acid, glucitol, xylitol, inositol, histidine, proline, sphingomyelin
, phosphatidylcholine, isocitrate, ceramide Antibodies immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) Cytokines interleukin-1[beta], interleukin-6, interleukin-8, interleukin-10, vascular endothelial growth factor and transforming growth factor (macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 [MIC-1]) Noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) microRNAs (miRNAs), small ncRNAs (sncRNAs), long ncRNAs (lncRNAs) Liquid biopsy circulating tumor cells (CTCs), circulation tumor DNA (ctDNA) and exosomes Body fluids detecting biomarkers from saliva, urine, stool or pancreatic juice
of erythrocytes membranes is related to total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol in patients with significant coronary arterial disease," The Open Clinical Chemistry Journal, vol.
Pearson et al., "Plasma sphingomyelin
level as a risk factor for coronary artery disease," Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology, vol.
Atshaves, "Intracellular lipid droplets contain dynamic pools of sphingomyelin
: ADRP binds phospholipids with high affinity," Lipids, vol.
In both [N.sub.2] and air APPJ treatments, peaks at 3.26 and 3.65 ppm are significantly reduced, which represent [sup.1]H at the choline [-N[(C[H.sub.3]).sub.3]] of phosphatidylcholine or sphingomyelin
. In contrast, peaks at 3.16 ppm are significantly enhanced after only [N.sub.2] APPJ treatments, which represents [-C[H.sub.2]N[H.sup.+.sub.3]] of phosphatidylethanolamine.
Awad, "[beta]-Sitosterol activates the sphingomyelin
cycle and induces apoptosis in LNCaP human prostate cancer cells," Nutrition and Cancer, vol.
It has been shown that rituximab regulates the sphingomyelin
phosphodiesterase acid-like 3b protein and acid sphingomyelinase activity, thus stabilizing the actin cytoskeleton and preventing apoptosis of podocytes .