West, "Low-grazing-angle microwave scattering from a three-dimensional spilling breaker crest: A numerical investigation," IEEE Trans.
The evolution of the wave breaking is sorted into three stages: plunging breakers, spilling breakers and surging breakers.
We build the sea surface with the spilling breakers and the ship bow waves firstly, the details of the model meet Ref.
Combined with the spilling breakers and the ship bow waves, the complex ship-sea geometric model is fully established.
The wedge-like spilling breakers located on the sea surfaces are introduced to account for the non-Bragg scattering, and the volume scattering of finite dihedral wedges is analyzed with the MEC .
Different from the spilling breakers on the sea surface, the bow waves are caused by the moving ship.