The tissues of stria vascularis (STV) including spiral ligament, spiral ganglion cell (SGC), and basilar membrane (BM), including the OC, were dissected, respectively, in RNase-free D-Hank's solution by microdissection.
LaminB1 was expressed in the nucleus of the SGCs, hair cells (including OHCs and IHCs), Kolliker's organ, Reissner's membrane, and STV (including spiral ligament and spiral limbus) (Figure 1).
Previous studies have shown GLUT-1, GLUT-3, GLUT-4, GLUT-5, GLUT-8, GLUT-10, and GLUT-12 expressions in both the stria vascularis and the spiral ligament .
There is no study showing the GLUT expression in the OHCs; only some studies elucidate GLUT expression in the stria vascularis and the spiral ligament. Takeuchi and Ando  and Ando et al.
(2,3) Sensorineural hearing loss is caused by the hyalinization of the spiral ligament adjacent to the otosclerotic focus, which affects the otic capsule in such a way that it interferes with the function of the organ of Corti.
Cochlear otosclerosis: Statistical analysis of relationship of spiral ligament hyalinization to hearing loss.
This damage ranges from relatively minor displacement of the basilar membrane to severe fracture of the osseous spiral lamina, tearing of the basilar membrane or spiral ligament
, and deviation of the electrode path from its intended location in the ST to the overlying scala media and/or scala vestibuli.
As the electrode is inserted, it will initially impact the lateral wall at approximately 180[degrees], after which the insertion force profile increases significantly as a function of the insertion depth, as does the frictional force, as the contact area between the spiral ligament
and the silicone carrier of the electrode increases .
To date, the distribution of MLCs was mostly studied in the adult cochlea, where the presence of MLCs was detected in the stria vascularis, spiral ligament
, basilar membrane, and 8th nerve [1, 7].
(16) Persistent tinnitus despite stapedotomy and an air-bone gap within 15 dB, which occurred in the 1 patient in our study who did not improve, is probably caused by an underlying condition, such as glucose intolerance, excessive caffeine intake, destruction of Corti hair cells by proteolytic enzymes released from otosclerotic foci, or an inadequate supply of blood to the inner ear secondary to hyalinization of the spiral ligament
of the stria vascularis ductus cochlearis, which is a natural consequence of the progression of otospongiotic disease.
IL-1[beta] is mainly expressed in the fibroblasts of the spiral ligament
in the case of nonspecific trauma such as surgery or acoustic neuroma, while TNF-[alpha] is mainly expressed in infiltrating circulating inflammatory cells or innate immune cells in the endolymphatic sac under the stimulation of external antigens.
Noise-triggered damage leads to impairment of the stereocilias of the hair cells, the loss of hair cells, and structural distortion at the spiral ligament
and spiral ganglion [2, 3].