Unlike the original columns, longitudinal reinforcement lap splices were removed from the plastic hinge zone and the transverse reinforcement was changed to spiral reinforcement with a larger bar size.
However, column transverse confinement was improved through the use of #4 spiral reinforcement spaced at 3.0 in.
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Incorporation of continuous spiral reinforcement
in circular cross section components such as beams and columns of RC structures could improve the strength, ductility, and energy dissipation capacity of such structural members [1-3].
 proposed an analytical model for evaluating the contribution of the transverse reinforcement in concrete members of solid and hollow circular cross section, consisting in an accurate formula for evaluating the shear transferred by spiral reinforcement
in solid members.
Circular columns reinforced with longitudinal bars and laterally confined with spiral reinforcement
* A patent-pending spiral reinforcement
construction that provides longer life in heavy-duty applications.
Rated up to 4,000 psi (28 MPa), the No-Skive, four-wire spiral 722LT is available in a wide range of sizes and incorporates a patent-pending spiral reinforcement
construction that provides longer life in heavy-duty applications compared with standard braided hose.
Stress-strain curves of concrete confined by spiral reinforcement
. ACI Journal, Vol 79, No 6, 1982, p.
Newflex lightweight PVC suction hoses provide spiral reinforcement
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of hoses not only increases the rate of production, it also provides a means of continuous manufacture of long length hoses.
In this study the stiffness of the horizontal ties of spiral reinforcement
is computed using the following empirical equation suggested by :