spontaneous symmetry breaking


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spontaneous symmetry breaking

[spän′tā·nē·əs ′sim·ə·trē ‚brāk·iŋ]
(physics)
A situation in which the solution of a set of physical equations fails to exhibit a symmetry possessed by the equations themselves; an example is a magnet, in which the underlying equations describing the metal do not distinguish any direction of space from any other, but the magnet certainly does, since it points in some definite direction.
References in periodicals archive ?
Thermodynamic parameter changes in turn induced spontaneous symmetry breaking, which we have shown can captured by several techniques of representation theory.
2] < 0 in the case of spontaneous symmetry breaking, and the parameter A is related to a minimized potential.
1) The dissipation of the Landau-Ginzburg free energy potential during a rapid superconductor quench referred to as spontaneous symmetry breaking phase transition [22], which implies state changes on very short time scales;
Both spontaneous symmetry breaking and the Hartman effect illustrates Hawking's [24] point about the elusive definition of time in a quantum mechanical process.
Phase transitions between the high and low temperature phases of a superconductor involve spontaneous symmetry breaking between order (superconductor electron pair) and disorder (electron) states when the transition occurs over shorter time periods than depicted by the normal relaxation times.
Since experimentally, the formation of vortices does occur during spontaneous symmetry breaking phase transitions of coupled domains in the Type II superconductor, Lorentz symmetry is violated.
Therefore, the choice for the energy fluctuation time during a spontaneous symmetry breaking phase transition of electron pairs is taken to be the Planck time [T.
The Hartman effect illustrates Hawking's (1988) discussion about ambiguities in defining time in relation to quantum mechanics and cannot be ruled out during spontaneous symmetry breaking phase transition.
Arbitrarily large electron group velocities (the Hartman effect) induced by spontaneous symmetry breaking phase transitions could conceivably result in a space-like (gravitational) disturbance in nearby vacuum scalar fields with possible momentum and energy transfer about these disturbances for space propulsion applications.

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