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sporotrichosis:see fungal infectionfungal infection,
infection caused by a fungus (see Fungi), some affecting animals, others plants. Fungal Infections of Human and Animals
Many fungal infections, or mycoses, of humans and animals affect only the outer layers of skin, and although they are sometimes
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a chronic disease of humans and animals caused by a fungus of the genus Sporotrichium; a type of mycosis.
In humans the disease affects the skin, subcutaneous tissue, and, less frequently, the mucous membrane and the internal organs. The causative agents of sporotrichosis have been found in plants (shrubs, grass, hay, and cereals), in soil, in street dust, and in food products. The fungus enters the body through injured skin and through the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. The infection is spread via the lymph and blood. Numerous hard, painless lymph nodes appear, mainly on the upper extremities. The nodes gradually become soft and open up, forming ulcers that leave irregular scars. The internal organs may be affected in the form of sepsis.
Diagnosis is made on the basis of bacterioscopy, tissue biopsy, and allergic cutaneous reactions. Sporotrichosis is treated with potassium or sodium iodide, or antibiotics; it may be treated locally with aniline dyes or ichthammol. Prophylaxis consists of thorough and timely treatment of injured skin.
In animals the causative agent of sporotrichosis attacks the organism through traumatized skin (wounds and abrasions). Horses, mules, dogs, and cats are mainly affected. The course of the disease is chronic. In horses the skin and lymphatics in the region of the neck and the extremities are affected. Pustules, ulcers, and abscesses are formed. The nodes that erupt on the skin are initially hard and painless; they become soft, forming fistulas that secrete pus. Necrotic lymph nodes (abscesses) subsequently form ulcers with raised edges. In dogs, cutaneous nodes and ulcerations appear over the entire body. Treatment consists of the use of iodine and sulfanilamide preparations. Specific prophylactic measures have not been developed.
REFERENCESMashkilleison, L. N. Infektsionnye i parazitarnye bolezni kozhi, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1964.
Spesivtseva, N. A. Mikozy i mikotoksikozy, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1964.
I. IA. SHAKHTMEISTER and I. G. LEVENBERO