spot


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Related to spot: G spot

spot,

fish: see croakercroaker,
member of the abundant and varied family Sciaenidae, carnivorous, spiny-finned fishes including the weakfishes, the drums, and the kingcroakers (or kingfish). The croaker has a compressed, elongated body similar to that of the bass.
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The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Spot

 

any one of several diseases of agricultural plants characterized by formation of blotches of dead cells on leaves, stems, fruits, and other plant parts; a specific type of necrosis. Spots are caused by inadequate soil nutrition; air pollution; burns; and pathogenic fungi (most often, imperfect hyphomycetic fungi of the genera Ramularia, Cercospora, and Macrosporium and pycnidial fungi of the genera Septoria, Ascochyta, and Phoma; less commonly such perfect fungi as ascomycetes of the genus Pseudopeziza), bacteria (genera Pseudomonas and X anthomonas), and viruses.

The outward appearance of the spots is determined by the relationship between and the specific features of the parasite and the plant host. The causative agents, which usually spread throughout the tissues, encounter opposition from the plant host in the form of mechanical and chemical barriers. A mechanical barrier is caused by the formation of a cork layer on the boundary between healthy and diseased tissue; the cork localizes the focus of infection. For example, in drupaceous crops infected with the fungus Clasterosporium carpophilum or the bacterium Xanthomonas pruni, the affected tissue, after the formation of the cork layer, falls out together with the pathogen. Chemical barriers form owing to the accumulation in the affected cells and the cells adjacent to them of phenolic substances that are toxic to the parasite (specifically anthocyanins and products of their oxidation). If intrusion of the parasite is accompanied by a severe protective reaction of the plant, a small necrotic spot is formed and development of the causative agent is curtailed. When, however, the protective action is insufficient to localize the infection, the spots slowly enlarge (for example, macrosporiosis of potatoes, tomatoes, cotton; phomosis of sugar beet). Sometimes check zones in the form of concentric rings are readily observable on the spots.

When the causative agents are pathogenic fungi, there arise variously shaped and colored dry spots, upon whose surface one may observe the spore carriers of the fungus. Bacterial spots are characterized by the formation of tiny blotches surrounded by chlorotic aureoles; sometimes droplets of resin emerge on the spots (for example, gummosis of cotton). Spots produced by viruses are localized along the veins or form characteristic rings and designs. Their coloration may be red (with accumulation of anthocyanins), dark brown, gray, black (with accumulation of melanins), or white (with decolorization of pigments).

The resulting atrophy of parts of leaves, fruits, and stems decreases the photosynthetic surface of the plant and the plant’s productivity. With widespread infection, the spots merge. This may result in the mass falling of leaves and fruits and the drying of stems, significantly decreasing the yield of agricultural crops. In some cases, even a minor infection may bring great harm. For example, a single infection of an alfalfa petiole with the pathogenic ascomycete Pseudopeziza medicaginis close to the place where the leaf blade is attached leads to leaf fall. For a discussion of control measures against spots of agricultural plants seeBACTERIAL DISEASES OF PLANTS, VIRAL PLANT DISEASES, and FUNGAL DISEASES OF PLANTS.

REFERENCE

Gorlenko, M. V. Sel’skokhoziaistvennaia fitopatologiia. Moscow, 1968.

IU. T. D’IAKOV

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

spot

[spät]
(electronics)
In a cathode-ray tube, the area instantaneously affected by the impact of an electron beam.
(ordnance)
To determine, by observation, deviations of ordnance from the target for the purpose of supplying necessary information for adjustment of fire.
To place ordnance in a proper location.
To locate or espy something, as an aircraft or troop concentration.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

spotting

A paint-film defect characterized by small circular or irregular areas having color or gloss different from that of the surrounding background.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Architecture and Construction. Copyright © 2003 by McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Spot

dog accompanying Sally, Dick, and Jane in primers. [Am. Cult.: Misc.]
See: Dogs
Allusions—Cultural, Literary, Biblical, and Historical: A Thematic Dictionary. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

spot

1. a geographical area that is restricted in extent
2. a blemish of the skin, esp a pimple or one occurring through some disease
3. a position or length of time in a show assigned to a specific performer
4. short for spotlight
5. in billiards
a. the white ball that is distinguished from the plain by a mark or spot
b. the player using this ball
6. Billiards snooker one of several small black dots on a table that mark where a ball is to be placed
7. Commerce
a. denoting or relating to goods, currencies, or securities available for immediate delivery and payment
b. involving immediate cash payment
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005

SPOT

(Smart Personal Objects Technology) See Microsoft Smart Watch.
Copyright © 1981-2019 by The Computer Language Company Inc. All Rights reserved. THIS DEFINITION IS FOR PERSONAL USE ONLY. All other reproduction is strictly prohibited without permission from the publisher.
References in classic literature ?
The next thing he has a strong yearning to see is the spot where the Saviour was crucified.
And in this self-same spot the priests of the Temple beheaded him for those blasphemous words he had spoken.
The instant this was done they issued through the broken gateway, and stealing out by a direction opposite to the one by which they entered, they quitted the spot, the sisters casting furtive glances at the silent, grave and crumbling ruin, as they left the soft light of the moon, to bury themselves in the gloom of the woods.
It is a secret spot, and cunningly devised, Richard; yet I see no symptoms of ore.”
When the horse of the latter reached the spot where the highway fell toward the valley, the eye of Marmaduke rested, it is true, on the same scene that had, ten minutes before, been so soothing to the feelings of his daughter and her friend, as they emerged from the forest; but it rested in vacancy.
"Here are the marks of the spot where he has struck his hoofs into the earth, in the death-struggle; and yonder he has plunged and torn the ground with his horns.
Above the little brake, the flocks of birds still held their flight, circling with heavy wings about the spot, struggling at times against the torrent of wind, and then favoured by their position and height, making bold swoops upon the thicket, away from which, however, they never failed to sail, screaming in terror, as if apprised, either by sight or instinct, that the hour of their voracious dominion had not yet fully arrived.
The three stood conversing in low tones, pointing repeatedly at the spot where the chest lay hidden.
That suspicion should fall on him seemed scarcely credible since the only men who knew that he had left the long-house that night lay dead upon the very spot where the treasure reposed.
Lady Montbarry went back with Agnes to her room to see the spot on the ceiling which had so strangely frightened the child.
On the 23rd inst., at eight in the morning, after a rapid passage, the Susquehanna was due at the fatal spot. They must wait till twelve to take the reckoning exactly.
Her position decided, the Susquehanna was found to be some minutes westward of the spot where the projectile had disappeared beneath the waves.