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spruce,any plant of the genus Picea, evergreen trees or shrubs of the family Pinaceae (pinepine,
common name for members of the Pinaceae, a family of resinous woody trees with needlelike, usually evergreen leaves. The Pinaceae reproduce by means of cones (see cone) rather than flowers and many have winged seeds, suitable for wind distribution.
..... Click the link for more information. family) widely distributed in the Northern Hemisphere. The needles are angular in cross section, rather than flattened as in the related hemlocks and firs. The Norway spruce (P. abies), an important timber tree of Europe, is one of the most commonly cultivated evergreens. The Siberian spruce (P. obovata) grows in coniferous forests (taiga) of Russia and Siberia, the Oriental spruce (P. orientalis) is a major species of S Europe, and the yeddo spruce (P. jezoensis) of Manchuria and Japan is sometimes dwarfed and potted (see dwarf treedwarf tree,
in horticultural practice, a tree artificially kept to a smaller size than is normal for average members of the species. This is usually accomplished either by limiting its root space and food and by careful pruning or by grafting it on the rootstock of a smaller
..... Click the link for more information. ). North American spruces used for timber are the red spruce (P. rubens), white spruce (P. glauca), and black spruce (P. mariana) of the East; the Engelmann spruce (P. engelmanii) of the Rocky Mountain forests; and the Sitka spruce (P. sitchensis) of the Pacific forest belt. Numerous spruces are cultivated as ornamentals; the most popular North American garden spruce is the frosty- or silvery-blue-needled Colorado blue spruce (P. pungens). Commercially, spruces are of particular value as a major source of pulpwood for the manufacture of paper. Wood of the various species is usually light, soft, and straight-grained and has been used for interior and exterior construction work, boats, airplanes, and woodenware. The bark is sometimes used for tanning, and some species yield a gum resin. Spruce beer has been made from the young shoots of the red spruce and the black spruce. Native Americans in the West have used spruce gum for caulking, the inner bark for food, and strips of spruce for weaving watertight mats and baskets. Spruce is classified in the division PinophytaPinophyta
, division of the plant kingdom consisting of those organisms commonly called gymnosperms. The gymnosperms, a group that includes the pine, have stems, roots and leaves, and vascular, or conducting, tissue (xylem and phloem).
..... Click the link for more information. , class Pinopsida, order Coniferales, family Pinaceae.
(Picea), a genus of coniferous evergreen trees of the pine family. Spruce is a prevalent forest species. The trunk is straight, and the crown thick and conical. The cones are four-sided, in some cases flattened and sharp, and can be preserved for five to seven years (and in some varieties, nine to 12). The anther microstrobiles are separate and either red or yellow. The pollen has two air sacs. The female cones are woody, drooping, and firmly attached. The seeds have a spoon-shaped wing. The root system of the spruces is superficial. Spruce can thrive in shade and cold winter, but are damaged by late spring and early summer frosts and by soot, factory smoke, and dry air. Spruce trees live 250–300 years (some reach 500 years) and grow on fresh clayey, loamy, and sandy loam soils. Spruce is an ornamental tree.
There are approximately 40 species found in Europe, Asia, and North America; eight grow in the USSR. In the European part from the northern forest boundary to the northern edge of the chernozem soil belt, the Norway spruce (P. abies or P. excelsa) prevails. This species reaches 20–50 m in height and a diameter of up to 1 m. It bears fruit at 15 years in natural growth and at 25–30 years in plantations. The cones grow to a length of 10–15 cm with scales that are rippled at the end. The wood is white, light, and soft; it is used in construction, in paper production, and for making musical instruments. The wood yields tar, pitch, turpentine, rosin, wood vinegar, and tanning substances. Spruce trees are usually cultivated in parks and planted in forest zones and along railroads and roadways.
The Siberian spruce (P. obovata) grows in the northeast European part of the Soviet Union, the Urals, and Siberia. It has smaller cones with solid scales. The Finnish Siberian spruce ‘(P. fennica) grows in northern Karelia; the oriental spruce (P. orientalis) in the Caucasus; the Schrenk spruce (P. schrenkiana), with a bluish coloration to the needles, in the Dzungarian Alatau and Tien-Shan; and the Korean spruce (P. koraiensis) and the flat-needled Yeddo spruce (P. ajanensis) in the Far East.
REFERENCESFlora SSSR, vol. 1. Moscow-Leningrad, 1934.
Derev’ia i kustarniki SSSR, vol. 1. Moscow-Leningrad, 1949.
Gaussen, H. Les Gymnospermes actuelles etfossiles, fasc. 8, ch. 11. Toulouse, 1966.
T. G. LEONOVA