As mentioned earlier, we employed a number of variables as controls, in order to reduce concerns about spuriousness
and omitted variable bias.
For example, if an inverse relationship was found, controlling for religiosity would be expected to reduce the size of the relationship, implying mediation (i.e., existential spirituality [right arrow] religiosity [right arrow] distress), spuriousness
(i.e., existential spirituality [left arrow] religiosity [right arrow] distress), or some combination.
To determine the spuriousness
or non-spuriousness of the relationship among independent and independent variables at bi variate level through (2) test statistics multi variate analysis were carried out.
The challenge is probably not the data's sheer size but the spuriousness
and noise inherent in big datasets as well as inherent security issues (LaValle et al.
Like all other factors, controlling for this variable avoids potential spuriousness
and leads to a better estimate.
"QAP Partialling as a Test of Spuriousness
." Social Networks 9: 171-186.
He does so by separating the tradition that Berossos introduced Babylonian astronomy to the Greeks from the problem of the supposed spuriousness
of the astronomical fragments.
The high contents of heavy metals in some imported brands may evoke the possibility of spuriousness
. Despite the sharp drop in lead poisoning among the human population primarily associated with control of exposure sources such as gasoline, paint, and various consumer products, lead exposure remains present through less well identified sources.
of categories used to make distinctions" (272).
The negative relation confirms the spuriousness
nature of the effect of CEO duality.
In examining associations between independent variables measured at Wave 1 and outcomes occurring later, there is little reason for concern about reverse causation (although other sources of spuriousness