sputum


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sputum

1. a mass of salivary matter ejected from the mouth
2. saliva ejected from the mouth mixed with mucus or pus exuded from the respiratory passages, as in bronchitis or bronchiectasis
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Sputum

 

pathological secretions from the respiratory tract that are discharged with a cough; they are the product of the overactivity of the mucous glands. Sputum often contains epithelial cells, bits of lung tissue, blood, and pus. The amount of sputum, as well as its appearance, is important in the diagnosis of disease.

Sputum may be mucous, purulent, serous, bloody, or mixed. Rusty sputum (sputum mixed with and colored by blood) is a sign of lobar pneumonia. Abundant purulent sputum is characteristic of a ruptured abscess in the lungs. Gray, dirty, malodorous sputum appears when there is putrefactive decomposition of lung tissue.

Sputum may be examined in a laboratory with the aid of a microscope and also by bacteriological and cytological analyses. Laboratory examination makes it possible to detect pathogenic microorganisms (including the causative agent of tuberculosis), cells of malignant tumors, and certain other elements that are characteristic of certain diseases, and to determine the sensitivity of bacterial flora to antibiotics.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

sputum

[′spyüd·əm]
(physiology)
Material discharged from the surface of the respiratory passages, mouth, or throat; may contain saliva, mucus, pus, microorganisms, blood, or inhaled particulate matter in any combination.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
Before starting on antibiotics all patients' sputum was sent for culture and sensitivity.
Characteristics of and growth of Aspergillus fumigatus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia in sputum samples and on cough plates from 15 cystic fibrosis patients, the Netherlands, 2017-2018 * FEV1, L Peak Pt.
Many sputum smear negative patients are reported to have progressive disease.13,14 Previous reports in non-immune compromised patients with sputum sputum-scarce TB indicated that bronchoscope specimens and post bronchoscope sputum are helpful in establishing the diagnosis.9,15 Superiority of Gene Xpert in immunocompromised patients to detect TB as compared to microscopy is debatable.
Sputum smears were stained as per Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP) guidelines (9).
The comparison among histological types, demographics data, and sputum CFL1 was done with Fisher's exact test and chi-squared test.
Pulmonary TB presumptive patients were requested to give sputum sample, which was transported to trained lab for SSM.
Distribution of sputum positive and sputum negative cases of PTB among various categories of BMI is represented in Figure 1.
It is not entirely clear the cause of discordant testing results in the remaining patients with negative BAL and positive sputum P.
Under research conditions, the Xpert MTB/RIF test greatly accelerates the time to laboratory diagnosis compared with MTB culture, [3,10] so that time to TB treatment initiation could potentially be reduced significantly--particularly for patients with sputum smear-negative TB disease, who would rely on MTB culture for diagnosis.
People suffering from acute cases of hemoptysis or bloody sputum have high mortality risk.
Change in the bacteriological status of sputum from initial acid-fast bacilli (AFB) positive to AFB negative after intensive phase (IP) of treatment is known as sputum smear conversion.
To verify the hypothesis, a panel of significant ncRNAs, including miR-223, miR-212, miR-192, miR-3074, SNORD33 and SNORD37 was selected to analyze tissue and sputum of NSCLC patients.