sputum


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sputum

1. a mass of salivary matter ejected from the mouth
2. saliva ejected from the mouth mixed with mucus or pus exuded from the respiratory passages, as in bronchitis or bronchiectasis

Sputum

 

pathological secretions from the respiratory tract that are discharged with a cough; they are the product of the overactivity of the mucous glands. Sputum often contains epithelial cells, bits of lung tissue, blood, and pus. The amount of sputum, as well as its appearance, is important in the diagnosis of disease.

Sputum may be mucous, purulent, serous, bloody, or mixed. Rusty sputum (sputum mixed with and colored by blood) is a sign of lobar pneumonia. Abundant purulent sputum is characteristic of a ruptured abscess in the lungs. Gray, dirty, malodorous sputum appears when there is putrefactive decomposition of lung tissue.

Sputum may be examined in a laboratory with the aid of a microscope and also by bacteriological and cytological analyses. Laboratory examination makes it possible to detect pathogenic microorganisms (including the causative agent of tuberculosis), cells of malignant tumors, and certain other elements that are characteristic of certain diseases, and to determine the sensitivity of bacterial flora to antibiotics.

sputum

[′spyüd·əm]
(physiology)
Material discharged from the surface of the respiratory passages, mouth, or throat; may contain saliva, mucus, pus, microorganisms, blood, or inhaled particulate matter in any combination.
References in periodicals archive ?
Data from the two periods were compared for the proportion of patients investigated for TB who tested positive by sputum smear microscopy, liquid culture or Xpert MTB/RIF, and the proportion of sputum smear microscopy, liquid culture or Xpert MRB/RIF tests that were positive.
All new sputum smear-positive pulmonary TB patients aged [greater than or equal to] 15 years of either sex, registering for directly observed treatment, short course (DOTS) IP under RNTCP from 1st January 2014 to 31st December 2014 were enrolled.
Prior to the collection of a sputum sample, patients rinsed their mouths with water, breathed deeply, held their breath and coughed.
Patients were evaluated for clinico-demographical parameters such as age, sex, symptoms with duration, comorbidities, sputum smear status for acid-fast bacilli (AFB).
Such limitations may cause that the many studies of microbiota based on BALF and sputum overestimate bacterial composition and load in lower respiratory tract.
Sputum samples decontaminated by Petroff's method and NALC-NaOH was inoculated on the slant of the LJ medium (Hi Media, Mumbai) and incubated aerobically at 37[degrees]C for 4 to 8 weeks.
Sputum samples were screened by fluorescent microscopy using Auramine O stain and smears found to be positive were confirmed by light microscopy using Ziehl-Neelsen's stain as per the standard protocols of both staining methods.
Conclusion: Factors like low resistance, high initial bacillary load and decreased hemoglobin levels affect the sputum smear conversion and should be addressed while assessing efficacy of anti-tuberculosis treatment.
In contrast, assessment of oxidative stress markers in sputum may be a more reliable approach to study the relationship between airway inflammation and oxidative tissue injury.
The diagnostic criteria for pulmonary tuberculosis were at least two positive sputum smears, or a positive sputum smear and a suspicious radiography, or a positive smear along with a positive culture.
sup][1] To the best of our knowledge, K C Mathur first reported a case of KS with sputum positive PTB from India.