specimen

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specimen

1. Med a sample of tissue, blood, urine, etc., taken for diagnostic examination or evaluation
2. the whole or a part of an organism, plant, rock, etc., collected and preserved as an example of its class, species, etc.
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Specimen

 

a sample, usually metal, that may be studied macro-scopically (in macrosections) or microscopically (in microsections). Preparation of a specimen entails grinding the flat surface of a sample and, if microsections are to be examined, polishing the surface. The surface is then etched with chemical reagents or heated in a gaseous atmosphere or in a vacuum. Selective etching and evaporation occur as a result of the differences in the physi-cochemical properties both of the grains of different phases as well as of the different grain-boundary regions. This leads to the formation of a macrorelief, which is visible to the unaided eye, or a microrelief, which must be examined with a microscope.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

specimen

[′spes·ə·mən]
(science and technology)
An item representative of others in the same class or group.
A sample selected for testing, examination, or display.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
Evaluation of the FASTPlaque TB assay for direct detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in sputum specimens. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2002; 6: 635-640.
Four of these cases were unable to produce sputum specimens (Table II).
The patient can be presumed to have NTM if a second sputum specimen is smear-positive, NAA-negative, and has no inhibitors detected.
From July 1990 through August 1991, the inmate was transferred between three different state prisons, and sputum specimens obtained during that time were predominately smear- and/or culture-positive.
In both instances, chest radiographs showed no new changes, sputum specimens were negative for acid-fast bacilli (AFB) by microscopy and culture, and she was treated for presumptive Pneumocystis pneumonia and showed clinical improvement.
Sputum specimen from each participant was identified with a unique numbering system followed by A or B indicating soon after the patient wakes up and before any antiseptic mouth-wash use, respectively.
On HD 8 a sputum specimen was sent for routine bacterial, fungal, and acid-fast cultures.
Direct smears were prepared from each sputum specimen for microscopic investigation using AFB stain by the ZiehlNeelsen (ZN) technique (ST Reagensia Company, Jakarta, Indonesia) and interpreted according to standard guidelines.
Smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis defined as patient with at least two sputum specimens positive for acid-fast bacilli (AFB) by microscopy, or radiographic abnormalities consistent with pulmonary tuberculosis with one sputum specimen positive for AFB11.
However, the included criteria of sputum specimen for microscopic examination were not described in this study.[sup][1]
The first aliquot of the sputum specimen [2-3 mL in 14 mL BD Falcon [TM] centrifuge tube (Becton Dickinson, Franklin Lakes, NJ, USA)] was subjected to direct AFB smear examination and N-acetyl L cystiene (NALC)-sodium hydroxide (NaOH) decontamination method (final NaOH concentration 1%).
Sputum specimen volumes received from children for Xpert testing are shown in Table 1.