Squalene


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squalene

[′skwā‚lēn]
(biochemistry)
C30H50 A liquid triterpene which is found in large quantities in shark liver oil, and which appears to play a role in the biosynthesis of sterols and polycyclic terpenes; used as a bactericide and as an intermediate in the synthesis of pharmaceuticals. Also known as spinacene.

Squalene

 

an aliphatic polyunsaturated liquid hydrocarbon with the formula C30H50. Squalene, which boils at 242°C and is soluble in many organic solvents, is an important intermediate in the metabolism of triterpenoids and steroids and is widely distributed in the tissues of animals and plants, as well as in microorganisms. It was first isolated from the liver of the shark. The biosynthesis of squalene is from mevalonic acid, which is converted to farnesyl pyrophosphate. The latter, under the action of squalenesynthetase (in the presence of thiamine), is di-merized to yield squalene. The enzymatic conversion of squalene to lanosterol and of lanosterol to cholesterol and other sterols commences with the aerobic oxidation of the terminal double bond of squalene.

References in periodicals archive ?
cruzi with ergosterol biosynthesis inhibitors, and even stronger effect may occur when an inhibitor of squalene epoxidase is used [36-47].
It catalyzes the synthesis of squalene from FPP, acting as the first and solely committed step towards the biosynthesis of the cholesterol, and, hence, is considered to be a potential regulatory point for sterol metabolism [20].
The human surface reaction with ozone was then improved by modeling the reaction with squalene. Next, the model was enhanced to include a computer- simulated person (CSP), a personal ventilation (PV) system, desk, floor diffuser and exhaust.
Squalene has been indicated to contain antifungal properties and is commonly used in the cosmetic industries [15, 16].
Argan oil is sourced from Morroco, North Africa, and is naturally rich in antioxidants, essential fatty acids, carotenoids, ferulic acid, sterols, polyphenols, vitamin E and squalene. These nutrients work together to help to heal skin, reduce inflammation and fend off free radicals.
AFA standard was used (47885-U/602-004-00-3, Supelco 37 Component FAME Mix, Sigma-Aldrich Brasil Ltda., Sao Paulo/SP, Brazil), and a separate standard was used for squalene (S3626/111-02-4, Squalene, Sigma-Aldrich Brasil Ltda., Sao Paulo/SP, Brazil).
Its mode of action is by inhibiting squalene epoxidase which converts squalene to lanosterol.
Vitamin E and squalene determination: Lipid extracts used in the assays were prepared using standard lipid extraction procedures (Bligh and Dyer, 1959).
Whereas the essential oil of stems was determined to be rich in nonacosane (23.26%), heptacosane (22.48%), hentriacontane (18.32%), octacosane (3.42%), triacontane (2.24%) and squalene (2.07%).
MF59, an adjuvant whose lipid core is filled with a squalene derivative, is being studied in an influenza virus.
(9) According to the Association of Birth Defect Children, Gulf War exposures include, but are not limited to: DEET, permethrin, pyridostigmine, pentachlorophenol, benzocaine sulfur, aluminum phospide, baygon, boric acid, Sevin, amidinohydrazone, diazinon, Dursban, dichlorvos, Ficam, carbaryl, lindane, malathion, oil well fires, leaded fuels, depleted uranium, solvents, DeContam agent, malaria pills, campfires, leishmaniasis, chemical warfare agents, CARC, experimental vaccinations (including those with squalene), D-phenothrin, allethrin, paint toxins, and many others.