The dried materials of each sites was ground to fine powder by using electric mill (Mini-Beadbeater-16, Bio Spec Products Inc), and subsamples were used for determination of stable isotope
signatures of carbon.
Researchers analyzed reference stocks of narwhal and beluga for stable isotopes
and compared these with isotope values from the hybrid skull.
We found no significant differences between the sexes either in stable isotope
ratios from feathers in either year or in whole blood in 2007 (MANOVA; all F [less than or equal to] 1.74, p [greater than or equal to] 0.20, df = 2), so data from sexed and unsexed birds were pooled for all further analyses, including for the SIAR model assessing the sources of nutrients for egg production.
ratios are reported in parts per thousand ([per thousand]) relative to international standards: Pee Dee belemnite (PDB) for carbon and atmospheric N for nitrogen.
These stable isotope
surveys also allow more precise understanding the biology and ecology of different groups of aquatic organisms.
Finally, an isotope ratio mass spectrometer [Thermo Scientific MAT 253, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Inc., Waltham, Massachusetts, USA) was used to examine the [[delta].sup.2]H stable isotope
Can stable isotope
ratios provide for community-wide measures of trophic structure?
ratios in plants, animals, and waters on Earth differ in characteristic ways.
Adductor muscles were extirpated, powdered after oven-drying, and processed for lipid extraction before measuring their stable isotope
Stratigraphic positions of Kingriali Formation in support with stable isotope
interpretation suggests that late Permian to middle Triassic age seawater derived brines were heated up and enriched in Fe, Mg and radiogenic Sr while circulating through elastic sediments, are responsible for the replacement of precursor limestone.
However, heavy elements such as Sr, Nd, and Pb experience only minimal isotopic fractionation, primarily as they have small relative differences in mass between their stable isotopes
. (2)-(4) The mass-dependent isotope fractionation of Sr and Nd, both of which have several non-radiogenic stable isotopes
, can be compensated for during analysis, demonstrating that the radiogenic stable isotope
ratios of Sr and Nd in rocks and minerals (i.e., [sup.87]Sr/[sup.86]Sr and [sup.143]Nd/[sup.144]Nd) are directly reflected in the water and living organisms within ecosystems.
The key to tracing and countering potential threats lies in identifying the impurity profile of a chemical agent and conducting a stable isotope