If the collector's overall heat loss coefficient is negligible (i.e., [bar.U] = 0) such that there are no convection or conduction losses from the plate, then the stagnation temperature of the collector (from 11) can be rewritten as (12).
It can be seen that a flat plate collector will achieve a stagnation temperature above 300[degrees]C if the infrared emissivity is kept below 0.132 and there are no conduction and convection losses from the plate.
The temperature profile showed that the plate had a stagnation temperature of 96[degrees]C under atmospheric conditions.
According to Figure 5 T1 and p1 are the upstream stagnation temperature
One important test checks the stagnation temperature, which is the maximum temperature the collector's absorber reaches an ambient temperature of 30[degrees]C and an irradiation of 1,000 W/[m.sup.2].
However, you should consider that a high stagnation temperature causes great wear on materials.
In this expression [P.sub.0] is the upstream stagnation pressure; [T.sub.0] is the upstream stagnation temperature; d is the CFV throat diameter; [R.sub.u] is the universal gas constant; M is molecular weight of dry air; and C* is the real gas critical flow function for dry air--a function of [P.sub.0] and [T.sub.0].
The LP CFV stagnation temperature in Stage 2 is measured using a Rosemount 162N100 A resistance temperature device (RTD).
Three experiments were performed on different days without load to determine the maximum plate stagnation temperature and the first figure of merit [F.sub.1].
where [T.sub.ps] is the plate (tray) stagnation temperature, [H.sub.s] is the solar insolation on the horizontal surface, and [T.sub.a] is the ambient temperature.
Thermal modeling predicted bullets traveling at velocities over 2,100 fps see stagnation temperatures
above 700 degrees Fahrenheit.
Above this, stagnation temperatures
become extreme, attaining levels from 5000[deg.]R to over 30,000[deg.]R as flight speed increases from Mach 10 to Mach 25.