The individual unisexual flowers lack a perianth, the pistillate flower consisting of 1 (rarely 2) pistil(s) subtended by a scale, and the staminate flower consisting of 1-3 stamens borne in a scale.
Flowers usually unisexual, the plants monoecious; perianth absent; staminate flowers with 1-3 stamens; filaments capillary; anthers narrowly linear, 2-4 mm long, apex usually mucronate or awned; pistillate flowers with one pistil; styles longer than stigmas; stigmas (2) 3, capillary.
In monoecious forms, staminate flowers
, if present (frequently on the upper part of flower-bearing stems) are produced before the pistillate flowers (frequently on the lower parts of stems); staminate flowers
, if present, are also produced before transitional hermaphroditic flowers (some of which are sometimes sterile), which are also often encountered.
Keltonia balli (Knight) (Hemiptera: Miridae: Phylinae): a rarely collected specialist on staminate flowers
of the dioecious shrub Florida rosemary (Ceratiola ericoides Michx.
taken from herbarium specimens showed structurally complete stamens releasing large numbers of pollen grains.
flower and the subsequent 10-16 glumes bear staminate flowers
These have coriaceous leaves with lepidote scales, and their staminate flowers
are greatly reduced compared to Croton (four to six per flower with no filaments, vs.
trelawniensis have staminate flowers born on a short (5-10 mm) spicate inflorescence.
Staminate flowers with single whorl of poorly defined perianth, 5-merous perianth ~1 mm long.
What forces are required to remove pollen grains from anthers and microsporangia, and what roles do microstrobili and staminate flowers play in regulating those forces?
Anatomical aspects of pollen release from staminate flowers of Ambrosia trifida (Asteraceae).
often occur in long pendulous inflorescences that flop in the wind (Faegri & van der Pijl, 1971).