The involucral bract and bracteoles of the staminate flower
have a single-layered epidermis on both surfaces (see Figure 2A, B).
3] 50 ppm, respectively induced the first staminate flower
at the lowest node in bitter gourd; and Arora et al.
By dropping of the petals at the end of the staminate stage, the pollen-covered insects were forced to leave the flower and eventually flew to a scented pistillate or staminate flower
(WEBBER and GOTTSBERGER, 1995).
The individual unisexual flowers lack a perianth, the pistillate flower consisting of 1 (rarely 2) pistil(s) subtended by a scale, and the staminate flower
consisting of 1-3 stamens borne in a scale.
with 3 sepals, these ovate, acuminate, 0.
caryotifolia), from which he separated it on account of the spinulose fruits, the abundant yellowish spinules on the infructescence, the rachillae not curved at the insertion of each staminate flower
, the larger fruits and fruiting perianth, and the pinnae more abruptly and strongly broadened.
Inflorescences with 2 sterile basal articulations and 2(-3) floriferous segments, each flower area with one terminal staminate flower
and two lateral pistilate flowers.
with 3 sepals 0,5-0,7 mm long; petals 3, 2,5-3 mm long, connate in the proximal part; stamens 6, anthers 1-1,2 mm long, filaments 1,5 mm long; pistillode minute, 3-parted.
more flower buds aborted during development), significantly fewer pollen grains per staminate flower
, and marginally smaller pollen grains than undamaged branches on the same plants.
symmetrical, trimerous, from barely to widely open at anthesis; sepals 3 short, [+ or -]triangular, sometimes basally connate; petals 3, much exceeding the sepals, valvate, boat-shaped, straight or reflexed, basally connate; stamens 3-12, anthers small, [+ or -]oval-linear, versatile, latrorse; pistillode present, minute, trifid, or absent.
Therefore, this study was conducted to achieve two objectives: (i) to devise a method for predicting pollen production from simple measures of staminate flower
development within a plant population; and (ii) to establish the lower limits for pollen production needed to ensure maximum kernel set on a field scale.
Because this method of pollen quantification is simple, accurate, and convenient, it has immediate application for relating staminate flower
development to pollen release, documenting production conditions where pollen amount is limiting, and quantifying pollen dispersal downwind of corn fields.